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Pictures in the margins
Author: Dolores Tierney

From 1943 until 1950, Emilio Fernández was regarded as one of the foremost purveyors of 'Mexicanness,' as one of the most important filmmakers of the Mexican film industry. This book explores the contradictions of post-Revolutionary representation as manifested in Fernández' canonical 1940s films: María Candelaria, Víctimas del pecado, Las abandonadas, La perla, Enamorada, Río Escondido, Maclovia and Salón Mexico. It examines transnational influences that shaped Fernández' work. The book acknowledges how the events of the Mexican revolution impacted on the country's film industry and the ideological development of nationalism. It takes note of current tendencies in film studies and postcolonial theory to look for the excesses, instabilities and incoherencies in texts, which challenge such totalizing projects of hegemony or cultural reification as 'cultural nationalism' or ' mexicanidad.' The book looks at how classical Mexican cinema has been studied, surveying the US studies of classical Mexican cinema which diverge from Mexican analyses by making space for the 'other' through genre and textual analyses. Fernández's Golden Age lasted for seven years, 1943-1950. The book also examines how the concept of hybridity mediates the post-Revolutionary discourse of indigenismo (indigenism) in its cinematic form. It looks specifically at how malinchismo, which is also figured as a 'positive, valorisation of whiteness,' threatens the 'purity' of an essential Mexican in María Candelaria, Emilio Fernández's most famous indigenist film. Emilio Fernandez's Enamorada deals with the Revolution's renegotiation of gender identity.

Editors: Lisa Shaw and Rob Stone

This book explains how the famous Spanish singer and actress Imperio Argentina starred in a film, Carmen, la de Triana, that was made in Berlin under the auspices of the Third Reich. It examines the Transition between the dictatorship and democratic eras in four films featuring performances in which transgendered protagonists lip-synch to songs from the Hispanic diaspora. The book considers how punk music and its attendant sensibility and cultural practices were profoundly influential in Spain throughout the early years of democracy. It focuses on one of the most financially successful Spanish films of the last ten years: El otro lado de la cama. The book moves to how punk music and its attendant sensibility and cultural practices were profoundly influential in Spain throughout the early years of democracy. This was when the Spanish version of British punk's irreverence, playful and disrespectful attitude toward art, bad taste, and corrosive humour nevertheless failed to capitalise on the political overtones of the original movement. The book lays emphasis on music as an indicator of the attitudes, social hierarchies and demarcations of youth but marks a shift in focus towards flamenco. Continuing the interwoven themes of rootlessness and evolution, it examines the diegetic and non-diegetic contribution of songs to representative films of the so-called 'immigration cinema' genre within Spanish cinema. Next come the exploration of transnationalism, migration and hybridity by exploring the role of Afro-Cuban song, music and dance in two films from Mexican cinema's golden age: Salón Méxicoand Víctimas del pecado.

The history of classical Mexican cinema and its scholarship
Dolores Tierney

This chapter looks at how classical Mexican cinema has been studied. It examines how Mexican analyses of classical Mexican cinema privilege the subjects of cultural practices and consequently disadvantage the film texts themselves. It challenges local nontextual perspectives which characterize Mexican cinema as ‘underdeveloped’ and suggests a means of reading against an approach that continually

in Emilio Fernández
The dollars are coming!

While post-war popular cinema has traditionally been excluded from accounts of national cinemas, the last fifteen years have seen the academy’s gradual rediscovery of cult and, more, generally, popular films. Why, many years after their release, do we now deem these films worthy of study? The book situates ‘low’ film genres in their economic and culturally specific contexts (a period of unstable ‘economic miracles’ in different countries and regions) and explores the interconnections between those contexts, the immediate industrial-financial interests sustaining the films, and the films’ aesthetics. It argues that the visibility (or not) of popular genres in a nation’s account of its cinema is an indirect but demonstrable effect of the centrality (or not) of a particular kind of capital in that country’s economy. Through in-depth examination of what may at first appear as different cycles in film production and history – the Italian giallo, the Mexican horror film and Hindi horror cinema – Capital and popular cinema lays the foundations of a comparative approach to film; one capable of accounting for the whole of a national film industry’s production (‘popular’ and ‘canonic’) and applicable to the study of film genres globally.

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The cinema of Fernando Méndez
Valentina Vitali

foundational role. Yet Greene is not an isolated instance: since its release on the foreign markets El vampiro has been regarded there both as a seminal instance of Mexican generic cinema and as a cult film by a marginal filmmaker. I revisit this somewhat contradictory positioning of El vampiro in Mexican cinema at the end of this chapter, when I discuss the film’s reception outside Mexico, where it appears to have circulated primarily in European retrospectives devoted to fantasy films and, in the United States, in drive-ins and exploitation cinema circuits. But to

in Capital and popular cinema
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Dolores Tierney

During the 1940s the ‘Golden Age’ of Mexican cinema (1935–55) reached its zenith. This was a time of immense expansion and popularity in the Mexican film industry, when it came to enjoy dominance over Latin American and other Spanish-language markets comparable to the world dominance of Hollywood. 1 The name ‘Golden’ which refers to this period of filmmaking clearly refers to this hegemony as well as to the

in Emilio Fernández
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Valentina Vitali

The invisibility of Bava’s and the Ramsay’s cinema in film historiography is a symptom of the marginality, in Italy and India at the time, of the kind of capital that sustained these films, just as the visibility of Méndez’ work in the history of Mexican cinema reflects the centrality of speculative capital in 1960s Mexico. Similar connections can be traced in other countries. The end of the Bretton Woods system in 1971 and the rise of financial capital marked also the end of Keynesian policies. New priorities began to be adopted that we now know, globally, as neoliberalism. The conclusion suggests that scholars are now rediscovering cheaply produced generic films because the marginal interests that formed these films’ conditions of possibility now confront us as a dominant force. Popular films staged the tensions brought about by its rise, and it may well be for this reason that they appear to us to be of great interest today.

in Capital and popular cinema
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Mexican cinema and Emilio Fernández post the Golden Age – from golden boy to ‘the man in black’
Dolores Tierney

Mexican film industry in the 1950s The decade of the 1950s was a period of breakdown in Mexican cinema, when both the ideological – i.e., the political institution of the Revolution as it passed from Alemán to Adolfo Ruíz Cortines (1952–58) – and institutional ‘systems’ of Mexican classical filmmaking began to fall apart (Berg, 1992 : 37). 2 This institutional failure in Mexican cinema had been

in Emilio Fernández
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The ‘frontier condition’ in María Novaro’s Sin dejar huella
Sofía Ruiz- Alfaro

Points of departure Considered one of the fastest-growing regions on the American continent and defined as the locus of endless socio-political, economic, linguistic and cultural interchanges, the US–Mexico border has, since the second half of the twentieth century, been used as a recurrent physical and metaphorical scenario in Mexican cinema. Analysed from different points

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
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A history of Latin American women filmmakers
Patricia Torres San Martín

reaffirmation of acute platitudes in solemn tone. So, the story doesn’t matter. (1986) During the 1930s, Mexican cinema discovered a generic formula (the rural melodrama set in the hacienda , a big farm), and transformed the national cinema project into a successful film industry. Fernando de Fuentes’s Allá en el Rancho Grande , 1936 became the

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers