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A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

destroyed, diverted, or programs have to be scaled down to minimise risk to personnel. However, whether in complex emergencies or in response to natural disasters, militaries often play an important role in humanitarian relief efforts, sometimes by providing search and rescue and airlift capabilities or by restoring damaged infrastructure. Indeed, in most of today’s crises, humanitarian organisations operate in the same environment as a range of military and non-state armed actors. Coordination is often easier in natural disaster settings than in conflict, as there is a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Economies of high- and low-value human capital
Andrew Mackillop

Armed service constituted the most accessible route for metropolitan provincials hoping to participate in the Asian hemisphere of British imperialism. The use of military manpower as an export economy was a centuries-old characteristic of Irish and Scottish society by the time the Company began the build-up of its armed forces in the 1740s. 1 It is hardly surprising in these circumstances that the corporation’s fastest-growing sector of employment attracted soldier-entrepreneurs of varying social, confessional and regional backgrounds. The diversification of

in Human capital and empire
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Nigel D. White

an analysis of Article 2 and Chapters VII and VII of the UN Charter, and the constituent treaties of security and defence organisations. The different military responses undertaken by IGOs, ranging from observation and peacekeeping to enforcement and war-fighting, are discussed in terms of legality and practice. The chapter considers the duties of IGOs as well as their powers; in particular whether there is an emerging duty upon the UN (and possibly other IGOs) to take action in response to the commission of core international crimes (genocide, crimes against

in The law of international organisations (third edition)
‘A very much abused body of men’
Author: James McDermott

Military Service Tribunals were formed following the introduction of conscription in January 1916, to consider applications for exemption from men deemed by the new legislation to have enlisted. Swiftly, they gained two opposing yet equally unflattering reputations. In the eyes of the military, they were soft, obstructionist ‘old duffers’. To most of the men who came before them, the Tribunals were the unfeeling civilian arm of a remorseless grinding machine. This book, utilizing a rare surviving set of Tribunal records, challenges both perspectives. The Tribunals were charged with balancing the needs of the army with those of the localities from which their members were drawn; they received instructions, recommendations and polite guidance from their masters at Whitehall, yet each was in effect a sovereign body whose decisions could not be overturned other than by appeal to similar bodies. Wielding unprecedented power yet acutely sensitive to the contradictions inherent in their task, they were obliged, often at a conveyer belt's pace, to make decisions that often determined the fate of men, their families, and ultimately, their communities. That some of these decisions were capricious or even wrong is indisputable; the sparse historiography of the Tribunals has too often focused upon the idiosyncratic example while ignoring the wider, adverse impact of imprecise legislation, government hand-washing and short-term military exigencies. Evaluating in depth that impact, and illuminating the social dynamics which often marked proceedings in the Tribunal chamber, this study attempts to redress the balance of an enduringly damning historical judgment.

A historiography
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Introduction Since the first recorded battle in history, distinctions have existed between those who fight and those who deal with the consequences of fighting ( Cioffi-Revilla 1991 , Hallett 1998 , Morgan 2005 ) and remain one of the most important aspects of the laws of war ( Crowe 2014 ). Yet, these spheres –humanitarian and military – have never been

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
Eric James and Tim Jacoby

Introduction Following the introduction in Chapter 1 in which the basic assumptions associated with the military–humanitarian relationship were presented, the history of the relationship was examined in Chapter 2 . In Chapter 3 , three issues were revealed that influence the military–humanitarian relationship. These were the tension between

in The military-humanitarian complex in Afghanistan
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Charlotte Yonge and the ‘martial ardour’ of ‘a soldier’s daughter’
Susan Walton

• 7 • Model military men: Charlotte Yonge and the ‘martial ardour’ of ‘a soldier’s daughter’1 Susan Walton Introduction Throughout her life, Charlotte Yonge (1823–1901), author of the bestselling novel The Heir of Redclyffe (1853), not only adopted the mindset of the military members of her family but moulded her fictional heroes in their likeness to create templates of desirable characteristics for her readers to emulate. The experiences of her father and her uncle in the Peninsular War and at Waterloo remained a fundamental feature of her life and will occupy

in Martial masculinities
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James Johnson

What is AI, and how does it differ from other technologies? What are the possible development paths and linkages between these technologies and specific capabilities, both existing and under development? This chapter defines and categorizes the current state of AI and AI-enabling technologies. 1 The chapter highlights the centrality of machine learning (ML), 2 and autonomous systems (or ‘machine autonomy’), 3 to understanding AI in the military sphere and the potential uses of these nuanced approaches in

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Edward M. Spiers

Using railways for operational support was the primary mission envisaged by the late Victorian army. Only a couple of the railways had been built completely in theatre during a conflict; both of these (in the Crimea and Abyssinia) were relatively short, and the latter was relatively far to the rear. None of the Victorian works of construction emulated the length and significance of the Sudan Military Railway, a

in Engines for empire
Laura Ugolini

•  4  • Civilians and military service Introduction In October 1914 Holcombe Ingleby and his wife received the news that their son Clement, a Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, was on his way to the Front. As Ingleby explained to Clement, they hoped ‘that you will bear yourself like a man’, but could not help worrying ‘that anything may happen to you’. However, such fears were cancelled out by larger considerations: ‘the business has to be faced, and any man who doesn’t offer himself at this moment to his country is a cur’.1 Many – perhaps most

in Civvies