Peter Lake has provided considerable insight on
Interregnum and Restoration England in his study of Samuel Clarke’s anthologized
lives of puritan clergy. Such editions of lives – particularly those produced after
the Clarendon Code – invoked a largely Elizabethan and early Stuart puritan
tradition, both conformst and nonconformist, centred on learning, respectability,
presbyterianism, and moderation. In the wake of the English Revolution and the Restoration,
Clarke’s lives professed truth to error by
Understanding state responses to terrorism in Egypt
Dina Al Raffie
predecessor had spent years perfecting as a strategic tool against all forms of opposition – as a result of his signing of the Camp David Accords peace treaty with Israel.
More importantly, Sadat's policy of ceding ground to the Islamists was naive in that he believed that his compromise in allowing religion to more aggressively pervade the public sphere would be met with compromises from the Islamists on his methods of governance. This belief was based on a logic similar to that of the academic inclusion–moderation hypothesis: that the inclusion of Islamist
’s account of the summum bonum , or highest good, and what constituted ‘virtue’ in his writings. It will then examine the significance of moderation for John, a safeguard placed on all actions that can be regarded as intrinsically Stoic in its presentation. The final sections will treat a number of examples of moderate virtue in practice. Throughout, the chapter will identify the personal characteristics that he considered to be necessary for life in the political realm.
The pursuit of the summum bonum
In Book VII. 8
dispute between Israeli militarism and moderation with a focus on the
critical period of the early to mid-1950s. It is argued that the victory
during that period of the Ben-Gurion over the Sharett
‘lines’ led in the short term to the 1956 Sinai campaign
and ultimately to the institutionalization of the use of force as the
preferred means of dealing with the Arab–Israeli conflict for
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
optimal level, refugees from Europe would only pose a strain on the system. There was no longer a need (or room) for mass employment. It was not only the United States that was discouraging Europeans from coming to America. Canada, supporting the same rhetoric as its southern neighbors, took the step in 1920 to ‘prohibit any moderation of immigration restrictions on behalf of refugees from Central and Eastern Europe, now in Canadian ports seeking admission to the country’ ( The New York Times , 1920 : 14). The visual displacement of refugees from influential and broad
John of Salisbury (c. 1120–80) is a key figure of the twelfth-century renaissance. A student at the cosmopolitan schools of medieval Paris, an associate of Thomas Becket and an acute commentator on society and rulership, his works and letters give unique insights into the political culture of this period. This volume reassesses the influence of classical sources on John’s political writings, investigating how he accessed and used the ideas of his ancient predecessors. By looking at his quotations from and allusions to classical works, O’Daly shows that John not only borrowed the vocabulary of his classical forbears, but explicitly aligned himself with their philosophical positions. She illustrates John’s profound debt to Roman Stoicism, derived from the writings of Seneca and Cicero, and shows how he made Stoic theories on duties, virtuous rulership and moderation relevant to the medieval context. She also examines how John’s classical learning was filtered through patristic sources, arguing that this led to a unique synthesis between his political and theological views. The book places famous elements of John’s political theory - such as his model of the body-politic, his views on tyranny - in the context of the intellectual foment of the classical revival and the dramatic social changes afoot in Europe in the twelfth century. In so doing, it offers students and researchers of this period a novel investigation of how Stoicism comprises a ‘third way’ for medieval political philosophy, interacting with – and at times dominating – neo-Platonism and proto-Aristotelianism.
. This way, in this chapter, I reflect upon how extremism as an object of knowledge and the extremist as its subject are constituted through their opposite: moderation and the moderate subject. Thus, the text analyses extremism as a way of exercising power through knowledge, constituting both the extremist other and the moderate self, asserting that discourses on extremism constitute not only otherness but, at the same time, a desirable self.
Inasmuch as the constitution of subjects takes place within historical modes of exercising power, the chapter contextualises
repeatedly work out this structural opposition through a process of moderation. For example, the press book for Woman of the Year ‘quotes’ Hepburn:
‘He’s the most economical actor I’ve ever known [. . .] and I’m the most
uneconomical. [. . .] I felt that we were so different, we’d be sure to strike a
happy medium’ (MGM 1942: 8). Seemingly having nothing in common,
Hepburn and Tracy’s union symbolises the moderation of oppositional
idiosyncrasies creating a stable equilibrium. The metaphor of economy and
excess proves extremely useful in characterising this
T he virtues of temperance and prudence, the regulatory virtues, aid the individual in the pursuit of moderation. The two remaining cardinal virtues, fortitude and justice, have particular relevance for the prince, however, as his position as head of the res publica means that he is uniquely placed to abuse these virtues on a scale that would be detrimental for the polity as a whole. Good leadership and its counterpart, tyranny, are a constant preoccupation in John’s works. John’s emphasis on virtuous living forms part of his attempt
Sir Philip Sidney, humility and revising the Arcadia
Richard James Wood
As I maintained in the previous chapter, Sidney invites his readers to judge Amphialus with moderation. In this chapter, I examine the degree to which Sidney himself can be identified with a character such as Amphialus, asking whether he, like Sidney’s other literary persona, Philisides, may represent the author in his own text. If this were the case, the fall of Amphialus could represent a more profound symbol of Sidney’s religious conviction than has hitherto been recognized.
The shepherd Philisides plays a prominent part in the Old Arcadia , but this