Drawing on Maggie Kilgour’s dictum that the Gothic activates a dormant past with
the power to harm the present, this article explores the early modern histories
invoked by the Regnum Congo, a sixteenth-century account of
Africa featured in H. P. Lovecraft’s cannibal story ‘The Picture in the House’.
The Regnum Congo taps into Lovecraft’s racism, instantiating,
within and beyond the story, the racial and cultural convergence he dreaded. The
tale’s cannibal resembles the Africans depicted in the Regnum
Congo to a striking degree, even as his reverence for the book colours
his putative status as a puritan. Integrating the book itself into the analysis
enables a reading of the tale’s controversial cataclysmic ending as oneof
several exemplars of Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock’s ‘Gothic thing-power’, which
disrupts subject/object boundaries. The multifarious histories summoned by
‘Picture’ reflect Lovecraft’s own ambivalence about the past, as well as the
possibilities of attention to Gothic pasts.
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
time in modernhistory, the major global power – I am of course referring to the US
– doesn’t have a project for the world. It is evident that the US has always
defended its own interests, but it always imagined or at least presented its interests –
I’m not casting a value judgement here – as linked to a project for the world.
Following the Second World War, it was the Americans who assumed primary responsibility for the
creation of the international system, starting with Roosevelt. Some international institutions
were accessible to all
destructive. While we can agree with Nietzsche that nihilism is a motor of modernhistory, it is a mistake to see it in purely negative terms. One of the greatest myths about contemporary violence is still connected to rather old psycho-analytical insights concerning fatalism and the egotistical downfall of the deluded man. Freud’s notion of the death drive in many ways is integral to the de-legitimation of the violence we do not like on account of its negation of human existence ( Freud, 1991 ). Of course, it is necessary to understand the psychic life of violence, and to
Soaking up the rays forges a new path for exploring Britain’s fickle love of the light by investigating the beginnings of light therapy in the country from c.1890-1940. Despite rapidly becoming a leading treatment for tuberculosis, rickets and other infections and skin diseases, light therapy was a contentious medical practice. Bodily exposure to light, whether for therapeutic or aesthetic ends, persists as a contested subject to this day: recommended to counter psoriasis and other skin conditions as well as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and depression; closely linked to notions of beauty, happiness and well-being, fuelling tourism to sunny locales abroad and the tanning industry at home; and yet with repeated health warnings that it is a dangerous carcinogen. By analysing archival photographs, illustrated medical texts, advertisements, lamps, and goggles and their visual representation of how light acted upon the body, Woloshyn assesses their complicated contribution to the founding of light therapy. Soaking up the rays will appeal to those intrigued by medicine’s visual culture, especially academics and students of the histories of art and visual culture, material cultures, medicine, science and technology, and popular culture.
Ireland, slavery and the Caribbean draws together essays and arguments from a diverse group of contributors who seek to explore the many and varied ways in which Ireland and the Caribbean share an interlocking Atlantic history. This shared history is not always a comfortable one. Despite being victims of the first English empire, Irish people enslaved others throughout this period, and can be found at the cutting edge of extractive colonialism. They profited, exploited, traded, and trafficked with the very worst of European opportunists. Irish merchants and enslavers operated in the grey zone between empires. They could be found trading within the Danish, French and Dutch empires, as well as within the British empire, with which they were more properly connected. Irish people also shared an experience of colonialism themselves, and this opens a series of interesting avenues and rich ironies for the contributors to untangle and interrogate. The Caribbean had an outsized impact on Ireland itself, as many of the chapters argue. Irish estates were modelled or named for Caribbean precursors, just as the colonial engineering of the Irish landscapes affected those in Jamaica, Trinidad and elsewhere. The relationship was reciprocal and complex. This collection builds on the sterling work of the Legacies of British Slave-Ownership Project at University College London, as well as the pioneering scholarship of Nini Rodgers. It brings together literary scholars, architectural historians, historians of colonialism, and art historians. The result is a novel exploration of the deep and complex relationship between two island archipelagos in a period of peak colonialism.
Increased Irish-Scottish contact was one of the main consequences of the Ulster plantation (1610), yet it remains under-emphasised in the general accounts of the period. The Scottish involvement in early-to-mid seventeenth-century Ireland was both more and less pervasive than has been generally understood, just as the Irish role in western Scotland and the Isles has been mostly underappreciated. Despite growing academic interest in English, Scottish, Irish and Welsh inter-connections sparked by the ‘New British History’ debate, the main emphasis in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century ‘British’ historiography has been on Anglo-Scottish and Anglo-Irish relations respectively. Exploring the Irish-Scottish world brings important new perspectives into play, helping to identify some of the limits of England’s Anglicising influence in the northern and western ‘British Isles’ and the often slight basis on which the Stuart pursuit of a new ‘British’ state and a new ‘British’ consciousness operated. Regarding Anglo-Scottish relations, it was chiefly in Ireland that the English and Scots intermingled after 1603, with a variety of consequences, sometimes positive, often negative. This book charts key aspects of the Anglo-Scottish experience in the country down to the Restoration and greatly improves understanding of that complex and troubled relationship. The importance of the Gaelic world in Irish-Scottish connections also receives greater attention here than in previous accounts. This Gaedhealtacht played a central role in the transmission of Catholic and Protestant radicalism in Ireland and Scotland, which served as a catalyst to underlying political and ethnic tensions within the British Isles, the consequences of which were revolutionary.
T O R Y H I S T O R Y 117
Tory history: Thomas Salmon’s
The popularity of Rapin’s Histoire ensured that it generated a large
number of responses from other historians. Indeed, both Thomas
Salmon’s ModernHistory (1724–38), the subject of this chapter, and
Thomas Carte’s General History (1747–55), the subject of the next,
provided direct attacks on Rapin’s account. However, whereas Rapin
had shown little interest in contemporary debates about public credit,
Salmon’s and Carte’s analyses were structured around criticisms of
the system of
, while Alfred
is said to have built new trading vessels ‘more commodious for commerce’, thereby helping to ensure that wealth ‘abounded in his realm;
and gems, spices, with other oriental goods, were imported from the
A key effect of such analyses was to reduce the qualitative differences between ancient and modernhistory; indeed, monarchs such
as Mercury and Alfred are shown to be ambitious, Stuart-style rulers
committed to maintaining order and advancing the commercial
interests of the nation and its people. Such an approach constituted a
a horror of unlimited content, flow and exchange –or really
the horror of contagion, miscegenation and unbanded life. Hygiene
requires protective barriers.’1
The modernhistory of leprosy cannot be understood without exploring this production of Others, which permeated colonial medicine in
eighteenth-century Dutch Suriname and the Caribbean. Leprosy, as
framed by Schilling and his contemporaries, was a disease of the Other,
which had orginated in Africa through sloth, dirt, and lasciviousness,
and had been transported in the bodies of the slaves to the New World
The American Red Cross in the last war of Cuban independence
Francisco Javier Martínez
elaboration of a common analytical frame for both of them would put an end, for example, to the writing of distinctive histories of Britain and British India, or to the establishment of essentialist differences between the European and North African military campaigns of the French Second Empire.
This chapter aims to take an episode from Spain’s modernhistory as a case study with which to move the focus of Red Cross historiography towards intermediary realities, for the narrative of the humanitarian movement born in Geneva in 1864 has been overwhelmingly framed by rigid