Rethinking integration
Author: Sarah Hackett

This book is the first comprehensive study of Muslim migrant integration in rural Britain across the post-1960s period. It uses the county of Wiltshire as a case study, and assesses both local authority policies and strategies, and Muslim communities’ personal experiences of migration and integration. It draws upon previously unexplored archival material and oral histories, and addresses a range of topics and themes, including entrepreneurship, housing, education, multiculturalism, social cohesion, and religious identities, needs and practices. It challenges the long-held assumption that local authorities in more rural areas have been inactive, and even disinterested, in devising and implementing migration, integration and diversity policies, and it sheds light on small and dispersed Muslim communities that have traditionally been written out of Britain’s immigration history. It reveals what is a clear, and often complex, relationship between rurality and integration, and shows how both local authority policies and Muslim migrants’ experiences have long been rooted in, and shaped by, their rural settings and the prevalence of small ethnic minority communities and Muslim populations in particular. The study’s findings and conclusions build upon research on migration and integration at the rural level, as well as local-level migrant policies, experiences and integration, and uncover what has long been a rural dimension to Muslim integration in Britain.

This book explores representations of queer migrant Muslims in international literature and film from the 1980s to the present. It brings together a variety of contemporary writers and filmmakers of Muslim heritage engaged in vindicating same-sex desire from several Western locations. The book approaches queer Muslims as figures forced to negotiate their identities according to the expectations of the West and of their migrant Muslim communities. It coins the concept of queer micropolitical disorientation via the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Sara Ahmed and Gayatri Gopinath. The author argues that depictions of queer Muslims in the West disorganise the social categories that make up contemporary Western societies. The study covers three main themes: queer desire across racial and national borders; Islamic femininities and masculinities; and the queer Muslim self in time and place. These thematic clusters examine the nuances of artistic depictions of queer Muslims’ mundane challenges to Western Islamophobia and Islamicate heteronormativity. Written in a scholarly but accessible style, this is a timely contribution to the controversial topic of Islam and homosexuality, forging understanding about the dissident position of Muslims who contravene heteronormative values and their equivocal political position in the West.

Sarah Hackett

, and the experiences of, certain segments of Britain’s rural populations, for example women, youth and the homeless. 10 Regarding the academic sphere, whilst much work has been done since Chris Philo’s 1992 claim that Britain was characterised by what he coined ‘neglected rural geographies’, 11 rural space nevertheless remains overlooked in comparison to urban settings across a range of disciplines and areas of research. This chapter places the integration of Muslim migrant communities in post-1960s Wiltshire within this context of rural Britain. It builds upon

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Sarah Hackett

disregarded or lost to history as they do not feature in written sources. 4 Indeed, Paul Thompson’s argument that oral history’s ability to focus on ‘the under-classes, the unprivileged, and the defeated’ leads to both ‘a much fairer trial’ and ‘a more realistic and fair reconstruction of the past’ has most certainly struck a chord with migration historians. 5 This chapter draws upon oral history interviews conducted with members of Wiltshire’s Muslim migrant communities. Through the interviews, migrants’ narratives and histories, and thus the ‘human’ side of the

in Britain’s rural Muslims
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Muslim integration in Britain - a theoretical and analytical framework
Sarah Hackett

The history of Muslim communities in Britain is widely documented. A small number of Ottoman Muslims were already present during the late sixteenth century and, as a result of vast imperial connections and its reputation as a place of opportunity, Muslims migrated from the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and North Africa during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Furthermore, it was the Indian, Somali and Yemeni seamen who began arriving particularly after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, and settled in port cities and towns like Cardiff

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Abstract only
Diverse Muslims, unexplored communities
Sarah Hackett

milestones, and the number of major roads and railway lines that dissect the county’s rural landscape, are evidence that Wiltshire has long held the role of thoroughfare between London, Bath, Bristol and Exeter, and thus has often been a place of passage rather than a destination in its own right. There are nevertheless several reasons why Wiltshire is a pertinent case study for an assessment of Muslim migrant integration in rural Britain. Firstly, it is home to a range of settled Muslim minority communities who are rarely recognised as being part of the county’s post

in Britain’s rural Muslims
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Muslim integration, the rural dimension and research implications
Sarah Hackett

the traits and characteristics, but also the challenges and predicaments, that often afflict rural areas, including a large retired and ageing population, a low crime rate, poor infrastructure and transport networks, and pockets of poverty, isolation, marginalisation, vulnerability and limited access to services. 2 However, Wiltshire is also home to small and dispersed, yet well-established, Muslim minority communities whose histories are intertwined with their local rural surroundings despite not often featuring in the more popular images of the county’s rural

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Race relations, multiculturalism and integration, 1976 to the late 1990s
Sarah Hackett

regarding the teaching of religious education in schools from a multi-faith perspective was introduced during the late 1970s, and in Birmingham, state schools did more to cater for the religious needs and identities of Muslim pupils and incorporated some aspects of Islamic studies into the curriculum during the 1980s. 7 In 1981, Bradford’s local authority set up the Bradford Council for Mosques, which granted the city’s Muslims greater recognition and representation, particularly in the areas of education and anti-racism. 8 By the late 1980s, numerous local authorities

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’
Christopher Baker-Beall

5 Constructing the ‘Muslim’ other: preventing ‘radicalisation’, ‘violent extremism’ and ‘terrorism’ Introduction This chapter explores the strand of the ‘fight against terrorism’ discourse that connects the threat of terrorism to ‘violent religious extremism’. The chapter focuses specifically on an EU belief that preventing terrorism is best achieved through the development of policies designed to combat the process of ‘radicalisation’. The chapter considers the emergence and evolution of the EU’s counter-radicalisation discourse. It shows how the ‘radicalisation

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
The early years, 1960s to 1976
Sarah Hackett

strategies. It charts local policy through to the arrival of the first waves of post-war Muslim immigration to the county, and offers an insight into how policymakers in Wiltshire perceived and addressed the integration, accommodation and experiences of Muslim migrants. In general, immigration and integration policy during this period at the local level in Britain has not been thoroughly explored. Although studies examining the local level are nothing new, it has not been until the twenty-first century that the importance of locality in devising and implementing migration

in Britain’s rural Muslims