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Europeans, Muslim Immigrants and the onus of European–Jewish Histories
Author: Amikam Nachmani

Relations between Europe and its Muslim minorities constitute an extensive focus for discussion both within and beyond the Continent. This book reports on the years mainly between 2005 and 2015 and focuses on the exploitation of recent European history when describing relations and the prospects for the nominally 'Christian' majority and Muslim minority. The discourse often references the Jews of Europe as a guiding precedent. The manifold references to the annals of the Jews during the 1930s, the Second World War and the Holocaust, used by both the Muslim minorities and the European 'white' (sic) majority presents an astonishing and instructive perspective. When researching Europe and its Muslim minorities, one is astonished by the alleged discrimination that the topic produces, in particular the expressions embodied in Islamophobia, Europhobia and anti-Semitism. The book focuses on the exemplary European realities surrounding the 'triangular' interactions and relations between the Europeans, Muslims and Jews. Pork soup, also known as 'identity soup', has been used as a protest in France and Belgium against multicultural life in Europe and against the Muslim migrants who allegedly enjoyed government benefits. If the majority on all sides of the triangle were to unite and marginalize the extreme points of the triangle, not by force but by goodwill, reason and patience, then in time the triangle would slowly but surely resolve itself into a circle. The Jews, Christians, Muslims and non-believers of Europe have before them a challenge.

Zionism and Israel as role models in Islamist writing
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

Muslims 85 that.47 Abdallah al-Samman (1917–2007), a thinker, journalist, a disciple of al-Banna and a personal friend of Sayyid Qutb, was imprisoned by Nasser’s regime in 1965, was released in 1970 and like other prominent Islamists in exile became an activist in Saudi pan-Islamic organizations. In January 1986 he participated in a conference on Muslim minorities convened by the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (al-Nadwa al-Alamiyya lil-Shabab al-Islami). The Assembly was founded in 1972 as the ‘youth branch’ of the Muslim World League, which had been established a

in Zionism in Arab discourses
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Brighter European–Muslim–Jewish futures?
Amikam Nachmani

preserve their culture, ethnicity and religion. Occasionally, Muslim theologians allow deviations from the Muslim Sharia law when it serves other, more prevalent or important Muslim principles. The irony of Islamophobia is that it makes it easy for Muslim minorities to remain culturally and religiously Muslim, just as state- and church-driven anti-Semitism has done for the Jews of Europe. An example that reflects the wish to preserve Muslim codes, but also highlights the difficulties of Muslim integration in Western societies, is Tariq Ramadan’s suggestion in March 2005

in Haunted presents
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The sanitary control of Muslim pilgrims from the Balkans, 1830–1914
Christian Promitzer

Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia and Thrace. As a result, in 1878, half a million Slav Muslims living in Bosnia-Herzegovina would fall under AustroHungarian administration and later, in 1908, came to be integrated into the Dual Monarchy. The autonomous principality of Bulgaria (which in 1908 became an independent monarchy) was also home to a considerable number of Muslims of Slavic, Turkic and Roma descent. Finally, small Muslim minorities lived in the independent states of Montenegro and Romania.7 With regard to the role played by Austria-Hungary, it is evident that it was

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Sarah Hackett

archival material, reconstructing parts of the county’s post-war history of Muslim minorities’ settlement, experiences and integration that are simply not captured in written sources. 6 Alongside the interviews, three existing research reports, which offer an insight into the experiences and views of Wiltshire’s ethnic minority communities, are also drawn upon in later sections. 7 The chapter will discuss the benefits, potential shortcomings and prevalence of using oral history within migration studies before going on to introduce the oral history research carried out

in Britain’s rural Muslims
A genealogical study of terrorism and counter-terrorism discourses
Chin-Kuei Tsui

understanding of radicalisation (as a process) and violent extremism also affected real-world policy practices in many ways. Since the 2000s, government authorities in the UK, the Netherlands and Spain have executed specific programmes targeting internal Muslim minorities to prevent Muslims from radicalising and being recruited by terrorist groups, especially al Qaida and ISIS. Besides, considering the severe threats posed by ISIS and foreign terrorist fighters, international organisations, such as the United Nations and the European Union, have also urged the leaders of

in Encountering extremism
Exploring the causes and consequences of China’s mass detention of Uyghurs
Editor: Michael Clarke

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) is the site of the largest mass repression of an ethnic and/or religious minority in the world today. Researchers estimate that since 2016 one million people have been detained there without trial. In the detention centres individuals are exposed to deeply invasive forms of surveillance and psychological stress, while outside them more than ten million Turkic Muslim minorities are subjected to a network of hi-tech surveillance systems, checkpoints, and interpersonal monitoring. Existing reportage and commentary on the crisis tends to address these issues in isolation, but this groundbreaking volume brings them together, exploring the interconnections between the core strands of the Xinjiang emergency in order to generate a more accurate understanding of the mass detentions’ significance for the future of President Xi Jinping’s China.

Jonathan Benthall

This chapter evaluates the incidence of religious persecution and conflict in our own century, as quantified and tabulated by two social scientists, Brian J. Grim and Roger Finke – with special reference to the plight of Christians and other religious minorities (including Muslim minorities such as the Ahmadiyya) in a number of Muslim-majority countries. It first appeared in the Times Literary Supplement on 1 June 2012, under the heading "Repression by numbers". Reservations are expressed about the value of vast global comparisons such as are presented by Grim and Finke, but it is argued that such an approach is defensible provided that one is alert to possible bias or misjudgements that can warp the whole enterprise. The plight of Christians and other religious minorities in several Muslim-majority countries has become still more urgent since the publication of this book, with the rise of Isis in the Middle East and Boko Haram in Nigeria. This Chapter also mentions the anthropologist Chris Hann’s critique of what he calls "religious humanrightsism", i.e. the claim that all religious traditions deserve to be treated equally.

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
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Europe and its Muslim minorities
Amikam Nachmani

1 Hectic times: Europe and its Muslim minorities Introduction A good quotation should do the job of introducing the reader to a work’s content, its mood and ambiance. Each one of the quotations in the preceding pages could serve as a motto for a book about Europe and its Muslim migrant minorities; several of them directly concern our work on the ‘triangle’, that is to say, the perceptions held by Europeans, Muslims and Jews about each other and the current encounter between Europeans and Muslim migrants. They indicate that European–Jewish precedents have been

in Haunted presents
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.