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Partnership for Peace (PfP) and a staggered admission process
James W. Peterson

Alliance theory is vital in comprehending the admission process to NATO, the key Western defense organization dating back to 1949 . The alliance offered a measure of reassurance to a Western world that was somewhat surprised by the eruption of an intense Cold War by the late 1940s. After the Cold War, the NATO alliance preconditions and requirements became a substitute

in Defending Eastern Europe
Open Access (free)
Kjell M. Torbiörn

A new NATO 169 8 A new NATO The Great role of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. … Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns … ’Tis our true policy to steer clear of permanent Alliances, with any portion of the foreign world. (George Washington)1 Summary The disappearance of the Soviet

in Destination Europe
The Balkan experience
Martin A. Smith

During the 1990s, both the EU and NATO enlarged their memberships: the EU by taking in Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995 and NATO by admitting the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland four years later. These two enlargement processes were not officially linked. In the wake of the developing EU enlargement process in the early 1990s, NATO members had apparently contented themselves

in The security dimensions of EU enlargement
Open Access (free)
Virtuousness, virtuality and virtuosity in NATO’s representation of the Kosovo campaign
Andreas Behnke

. Jean Baudrillard’s diagnosis of the Gulf War also applies to this latest expression of organised violence in contemporary politics. 2 This is not to deny that death and destruction defined the reality in Kosovo and Serbia in the first half of 1999. After all, NATO planes delivered large amounts of ordnance upon targets in this area, destroying both military and civilian infrastructure; killing civilians as well as soldiers. And

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Open Access (free)
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

In the eyes of some observers, the Kosovo crisis posed the greatest threat to relations between Russia and NATO since the end of the Cold War. It also, according to some, seemingly demonstrated the impotence and marginalisation of Russia as an actor in European security affairs. In order to test and explore the validity of these propositions the discussions in this chapter first chart the course of

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Hardware or software?
Terry Macintyre

Chapter 2 Nuclear sharing in NATO: hardware or software? T he question of nuclear sharing within NATO was one of the more seemingly intractable problems confronting Harold Wilson and the in-coming Labour government. The solution that commanded the field in October 1964, having been advanced some four years ­earlier by the United States as a counter to the increasing number of Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBMs) capable of striking at NATO bases, and as tangible evidence of its commitment to the defence of Western Europe, was for a NATO multilateral

in Anglo-German relations during the Labour governments 1964–70
Joshua B. Spero

2504Chap9 7/4/03 12:41 pm Page 166 9 Paths to peace for NATO’s partnerships in Eurasia Joshua B. Spero This chapter examines the role of multilateral cooperative efforts and institutionalised security cooperation in the Eurasian area through a study of NATO’s PfP programme. In terms of measuring the capacity to increase Eurasian security, the general track record of the post-Cold War security institutions in non-traditional areas of societal democratisation, economic modernisation, civil and cross-border war prevention, and Eurasian integration presents a

in Limiting institutions?
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

Since the end of the Cold War, NATO has been significantly reoriented and retooled across the board. This process of change has been captured under two main labels. Internal adaptation is NATO-speak for looking at how the institution works, and whether it can be made to work better and more effectively. The process has embraced the possibility of creating procedures and structures whereby European member

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith

NATO’s employment of military power against the government of Slobodan Milosevic over Kosovo has been among the most controversial aspects of the Alliance’s involvement in South East Europe since the end of the Cold War. The air operations between March and June 1999 have been variously described as war, ‘humanitarian war’, ‘virtual war’, intervention and ‘humanitarian intervention’ by the conflict

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Albania and Bulgaria
Ivan P. Nikolov and James W. Peterson

attack from within the region, and by a Balkan assassin on a member of the Austrian royal family. World War II as well as the communist period created a situation in which the region was torn by both local and outside forces. The answer to the opening question about why stability has now set in is related to a variety of factors. Both Bulgaria and Albania entered NATO in part because of wars in Afghanistan

in Defending Eastern Europe