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monarchy and meritocracy in the reconstruction of the officer corps, 1799–1815
Rafe Blaufarb

Did Napoleon secure the “triumph of the Revolution,” as Thiers put it, or, on the contrary, “were the principles of the Revolution ... perfectly forgotten during his reign,” as Michelet claimed? 1 Historians who have attempted to make sense of the Napoleonic legacy are confronted with a regime whose actions often seem contradictory. Napoleon boasted of having ended the Revolution in France, even as he endeavored to spread it abroad. His rule was monarchical in all but name, but, master of the plebiscite, he invoked the national will as the source of his

in The French army 1750–1820
Pakeha identity and the preservation and neglect of Maori material culture
Kynan Gentry

nothing new, with nations such as Greece and Egypt having had measures in place since the late eighteenth century. 52 Now, with the trade in Maori antiquities booming, it seemed it was New Zealand’s turn to lose out to the cultural appetites of Europe. ‘A century ago’, warned one Member during debate on the topic a few months later, ‘the continent of Europe was overrun by the Emperor Napoleon, who at the

in History, heritage, and colonialism
National grandeur, territorial conquests and colonial embellishment, 1852–70
Emmanuelle Guenot

Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (1808–73) was proclaimed Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, in 1852, putting to an end a series of internal political turmoils in French regimes that had pitted monarchists, republicans and Bonapartists against one another. Napoleon III’s authoritarian regime provided political stability that enabled the promotion of economic development and

in Crowns and colonies
Brian Lewis

1 The Napoleon of soap Et lux perpetua He died from pneumonia on 7 May 1925 at his home on Hampstead Heath, aged seventy-four. ‘The career of Lord Leverhulme bristles with dramatic values that will prove an embarrassment of riches for his biographer,’ wrote an obituarist in the New York Evening Post. His career from obscurity to industrial command and affluence has challenged and allured Americans. They liked his rapid-fire, militant decisiveness, the extensive sweep and intensive development of his far-flung enterprises, the wide range of his hobbies outside

in ‘So clean’
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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The Rejection of Enlightenment in the Unreliable Souvenirs of Charles Nodier
Matthew Gibson

Charles Nodier (1780–1844), librarian, occultist, entomologist and pioneer of the Fantastic in France was also a consummate liar in his many biographical souvenirs, a fact which led Bryan Rogers to understand him as attempting tofind consolation in a superior truth in his memoirs to that of his own lived experience, while Hélène Lowe-Dupas has remarked more on his use of the language of theatre in these memoirs in order, amongst other things, to render experience less chaotic. By detailing the nature of his lies in two souvenirs Les Prisons de Paris sous le Consulat (1826) and Suites dun mandat darrêt (1834), the current article seeks to locate the falsehoods as being more firmly rooted in his symbiotic rationale for Fantastic fiction, and demonstrate how his lies have a more scientific justification, helping him to extend historical truth before it is shown to be demonstrable.

Gothic Studies
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

rise of mass military mobilisations ( Farré, 2014 ). In the memory of the humanitarian movement, the Battle of Solferino stands as the inaugural event leading to the adoption of the first diplomatic treaty with humanitarian aims. A Franco-Sardinian coalition led by Napoleon III was fighting the Austrian army led by Emperor Franz Joseph. It was outside Solferino, a small town in northern Italy, that one of the bloodiest battles since the end of the Napoleonic Wars was fought

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

to beg for Emperor Louis Napoleon’s help in saving his colonial investments. We can look at the use by German forces in the 1870 Franco-Prussian war of the Red Cross as a bombing target, or the contrast between The Hague Conventions and the use of poison gas during World War I, or prior to that the creation of a concentration camp system by the British in South Africa. Indeed, we can go back to the famines the British at worst engineered, and at best tolerated, in India, killing millions of people. Or the Germans and the Herero, or the Belgians

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Lord Leverhulme, soap and civilization
Author: Brian Lewis

This book is an unorthodox biography of William Hesketh Lever, 1st Lord Leverhulme (1851-1925), the founder of the Lever Brothers' Sunlight Soap empire. The most frequently recurring comparison during his life and at his death, however, was with Napoleon. What the author finds most fascinating about him is that he unites within one person so many intriguing developments of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The book first sketches out his life, the rise and triumph of his business, and explores his homes, his gardens and his collections. It contains essays on Lever in the context of the history of advertising, of factory paternalism, town planning, the Garden City movement and their ramifications across the twentieth century, and of colonial encounters. Lever had worked hard at opening agencies and selling his soap abroad since 1888. But if import drives proved unsatisfactory, logic dictated that soap should be manufactured and sold locally, both to reduce the price by vaulting tariff barriers on imports and to cater for idiosyncratic local tastes. As D. K. Fieldhouse points out, Lever Brothers was one of the first generation of capitalist concerns to manufacture in a number of countries. The company opened or started building factories in America, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and Germany in the late 1890s. It then spread to most western European countries and the other white settler colonies of the empire, as well as more tentatively to Asia and Africa.