This article examines the ways in which James Herbert‘s The Spear (1978) attempted to combine nineteenth century gothic with the contemporary thriller. The novel deals with the activities of a neo-Nazi organisation, and the essay draws parallels between Herberts deployment of National Socialism and the treatment of Roman Catholicism in earlier Gothic texts. Contextualising the novel within a wider fascination with Nazism in 1970s popular culture, it also considers the ethical difficulties in applying techniques from supernatural Gothic to secular tyranny.
This book compares the worldviews and factors that promoted or, indeed, opposed anti-semitism amongst Catholics in Germany and England after the First World War. As a prequel to books on Hitler, fascism and genocide, it turns towards ideas and attitudes that preceded and shaped the ideologies of the 1920s and 1940s. Apart from the long tradition of Catholic anti-Jewish prejudices, the book discusses new and old alternatives to European modernity offered by Catholics in Germany and England. Numerous events in the interwar years provoked anti-Jewish responses among Catholics: the revolutionary end of the war and financial scandals in Germany; Palestine and the Spanish Civil War in England. At the same time, the rise of fascism and National Socialism gave Catholics the opportunity to respond to the anti-democratic and anti-semitic waves these movements created in their wake. The book is a political history of ideas that introduces Catholic views of modern society, race, nation and the ‘Jewish question’. It shows to what extent these views were able to inform political and social activity.
.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/rwanda-state-research (accessed 15 February 2019).
Longman , T. ( 2010 ), Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda ( New York : Cambridge University Press ).
Mamdani , M. ( 2001 ), When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda ( Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press ).
Mason , T. ( 1981 ), ‘Intention and explanation: A current controversy about the interpretation of NationalSocialism’ , in Hirschfeld , G. and Kettenacker , L. (eds), Der ‘Führerstaat’: Mythos und Realität ( Stuttgart : Klett-Cotta ), pp. 21 – 40 .
Rever , J
-nationalist aspirations for pan-German unity
since 1848, or did it signify a departure from the Austrian imperial idea of
a German sphere of inﬂuence over non-Germans? In 1933, some Germannationalists expressed caution at the violent extremes of NationalSocialism, and a few went so far as to denounce NationalSocialism and curry
favour with the Austrofascist regime, but all remained ﬁrm in their belief
that a genuine nationalist movement, including National Socialists, would
ultimately bring about political unity in a greater-German state, one in
which German minorities abroad would
Death of the GDR – rebirth of an eastern identity?
, headed by the slogan ‘Germans – We can be proud
of our country’, the 2001 poster campaign was loaded with controversy. Despite recent claims that unified Germany has regained a
sense of ‘normality’, the expression of collective German pride is
clearly still considered anything but ‘normal’.
The attitudes of young east Germans exemplify the unease that
surrounds the expression of patriotic pride in contemporary
Germany yet, in contrast to their elders, they often have little personal memory of divided Germany, and none of NationalSocialism.
For the majority, unified
Second World War and mass murder. Yet half a century later German politicians readily apologized for Nazi crimes, and intellectuals had embraced a veritable Holocaust-sensibility as their enthusiasm for Daniel Goldhagen’s exaggerated indictment of eliminationist anti-Semitism showed. 1 Resisting efforts to relativize this terrible legacy, scholars wrote probing accounts of the failure of democracy, the rise of NationalSocialism and the terrible crimes of genocide. While this difficult reversal was never complete, it was more extensive than in post-militarist Japan
amends – against the majority
opinion of his curia.2
Such a distinction between Christian anti-Judaism and modern
antisemitism might look like a minor semantic problem to outsiders,
Church, nation and race
but it has been the central problem in discussions on the relationship
between Catholics and Jews. Whether one tries to understand
Catholic attitudes towards biblical and modern Jews, or sees the
Church as a bulwark against or an ally to fascism and NationalSocialism, one necessarily comes back to the
portrayals of the necessity of doing evil in the cause of something
beyond good and evil provide, I believe, some clues as to how these
‘philo-Semitic’ writers could support Hitler despite
awareness of the brutal anti-Semitism of NationalSocialism. 4
House of the
Like Elizabeth Braddon’s
‘Good Lady Ducayne’ ( 1896 ) or Harriet
in Florence Marryat
then placed their emphasis on a revival of Imperial Sammlungspolitik
by devoting their efforts to political lobbying and to the education of
the younger generation in a Christian-nationalist worldview, which
they hoped would permeate all levels of German society.
The Catholic right – Catholics who sympathised or joined the
German National People’s Party (DNVP) – has been a stepchild of
historical research into German conservatism and its relationship to
NationalSocialism. Small in numbers and caught between the nationalist conservatism of the largely