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Manchester and the rescue of the victims of European fascism, 1933–1940
Author: Bill Williams

Between 1933 and 1940, Manchester received between seven and eight thousand refugees from Fascist Europe. They included Jewish academics expelled from universities in Germany, Austria, Spain and Italy. Around two hundred were children from the Basque country of Spain evacuated to Britain on a temporary basis in 1937 as the fighting of the Spanish Civil War neared their home towns. Most were refugees fleeing Nazi persecution in Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. As much as 95% of the refugees from Nazism were Jews threatened by the increasingly violent anti-Semitism of the Nazi regime. The rest were Communists, Social Democrats, Pacifists, Liberals, Confessional Christians and Sudeten Germans. There have been several valuable studies of the response of the British government to the refugee crisis. This study seeks to assess the responses in one city—Manchester—which had long cultivated an image of itself as a ‘liberal city’. Using documentary and oral sources, including interviews with Manchester refugees, it explores the work of those sectors of local society that took part in the work of rescue: Jewish communal organisations, the Society of Friends, the Rotarians, the University of Manchester, secondary schools in and around Manchester, pacifist bodies, the Roman Catholic Church and industrialists from the Manchester region. The book considers the reasons for their choices to help to assesses their degree of success and the forces which limited their effectiveness.

The Kinder
Tony Kushner

1999, a plaque was unveiled at the House of Commons ‘In deep gratitude to the people and Parliament of the United Kingdom for saving the lives of 10,000 Jewish and other children who fled to this country from Nazi persecution on the 126 The Kinder Kindertransport 1938–1939’.44 From its earliest days, saved has been the description used to justify and then to celebrate the movement of refugee children to Britain. With its Christological connotations, the word emphasises the role played by the rescuers and tends to subsume the individuality of the rescued. The first

in The battle of Britishness
Ian Vellins

entering Britain as a result of Nazi persecution, this support was based on that leadership’s estimation that it would only need support for around 4,000. However, the German occupation of Austria in March 1938 and of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 dramatically increased the number of Jewish refugees fleeing persecution (increasing to about 55,000 arriving in Britain by 1939, at a cost to the Jewish community of more than £3,000,000) 69 and furthermore the outbreak of war prevented Jewish refugees from returning. As a result, British Jews were faced with providing long

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Abstract only
Bystanders to the Holocaust
Tom Lawson

never, ever become a bystander.18 Such identification inevitably renders bystander History more morally immanent than some fields of enquiry even into the Holocaust, because, as David Wyman argues, ‘we were the all too passive accomplices’ to the Shoah.19 But who exactly were the bystanders in the past? Der Stellvertreter was Deputy of us all. The Vicar of Christ stood as the conscience of all humanity, representative of all humankind who were in a sense the bystanders to Nazi persecution. But historians cannot draw the category so widely. Functionally it is not even

in Debates on the Holocaust
Charmian Brinson and Richard Dove

subsequently was designed to prepare for war, not to prevent it. In April, the introduction of military conscription was announced – the first time in British history that such a measure had been introduced in peacetime. Among the signs of impending war was the growing number of Germanspeaking refugees arriving in Britain. The Nazi persecution of Jews in the months after the Anschluss had forced a stream of refugees to leave Austria. By the end of 1938, the stream had become a flood, as the horrors of the ‘Kristallnacht’ pogrom caused a mass flight of Jews from Greater

in A matter of intelligence
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Political refugees from Germany and Austria after January 1933
Charmian Brinson and Richard Dove

genocide – disguises the fact that the first victims of Nazi persecution were their political and ideological opponents: Communists, Socialists, trade unionists, pacifists and liberals. The majority of ‘political’ refugees who fled Nazi Germany did so – in contrast to the majority of their Jewish counterparts – before the end of 1933. On the night of 27 February 1933, the Reichstag was set on fire. While it has never been established beyond doubt whether the Nazis themselves were responsible, they certainly exploited the event to settle accounts with their political

in A matter of intelligence
War crimes prosecutions and the emergence of Holocaust metanarratives
Tom Lawson

reported the beginning of the trial, which is invariably hailed as a watershed moment in the development of Holocaust narratives. Because much of the prosecution case rested on surviving witnesses to Nazi persecution it transformed the role of survivors and persuaded many to tell their own stories for the first time. A plethora of publications followed – both from survivors and those examining the rapidly iconic Eichmann.3 The most important was Hannah Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, a collection of her court reports previously published

in Debates on the Holocaust
Post-war interpretations of the genocide of the Jews
Tom Lawson

constructed in the immediate post-war era, chiefly because the persecution of the Jews was not its main focus and appears to have been lost amidst a general horror at Nazi persecution.2 Kogon’s analysis was, to a great degree, autobiographical – based on his own experiences in Buchenwald. But he aimed also to say something about whole camp structure and its crimes. Buchenwald stood as representative of Nazi iniquity. Yet, as it was dedicated to mainly political punishment and latterly the distribution of slave labour, Buchenwald was entirely different to those ‘death camps

in Debates on the Holocaust
Abstract only
Derek Fraser

Jews fled the Nazi persecution – including the dramatic stories of the Kindertransport and the later arrival of holocaust survivors. The hostile political environment also spawned smaller scale Jewish immigration from Egypt in the 1950s and Iran in the 1960s and 1970s. Migration is actually not just about transnational incomers, and as Leeds developed further as a vibrant commercial and industrial centre in the twentieth century, so it attracted many Jewish citizens from elsewhere in Britain who were motivated by career and job opportunities. These were perhaps more

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
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Representing Jewish wartime experience in French crime fiction of the 1950s and 1960s
Claire Gorrara

  notes, during the 1950s and 1960s: ‘the awareness, the prise de conscience,  of the specificity of the Jewish experience in the universe of Nazipersecution had not permeated public opinion and that in reactions towards the  survivors  of  genocide  open  hostility  often  prevailed’.8  Lagrou  grapples  • 43 • French crime fiction and the Second World War sensitively with the reasons for such marginalisation. These encompass  the side-lining of Jewish war experiences due to post-war anti-Semitism  which propagated images of Jewish treason and the lack of a Jewish

in French crime fiction and the Second World War