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Open Access (free)
A reassessment
Jon Seligman, Paul Bauman, Richard Freund, Harry Jol, Alastair McClymont, and Philip Reeder

The Ponar-Paneriai base, the main extermination site of Vilna-Vilnius, began its existence as a Red Army fuel depot in 1940. After Nazi occupation of the city in 1941 the Einsatzgruppen and mostly Lithuanian members of the Ypatingasis būrys used the pits dug for the fuel tanks for the murder of the Jews of Vilna and large numbers of Polish residents. During its operation, Ponar was cordoned off, but changes to the topography of the site since the Second World War have made a full understanding of the site difficult. This article uses contemporary plans and aerial photographs to reconstruct the layout of the site, in order to better understand the process of extermination, the size of the Ponar base and how the site was gradually reduced in size after 1944.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Contemporary French cinema and the Second World War

Nazi-occupied France, 16 July 1942. The French police arrest 13,152 Jewish residents of Paris and hold them at the Vélodrome d’Hiver before facilitating their deportation to extermination camps, over two-thirds to Auschwitz. Not until 1995, on the fifty-third anniversary of the Vél’ d’Hiv roundup, was the French authorities’ complicity in this event officially acknowledged in a speech by newly elected president Jacques Chirac: ‘France, land of the Enlightenment and of Human Rights … France, on that day, committed an irreparable act.’ Reframing remembrance: Contemporary French cinema and the Second World War argues that Chirac’s speech marked a shift in the way French society, and its filmmakers, commemorated the Second World War. By following Henry Rousso’s model (outlined in Le syndrome de Vichy), viewing historical films as vectors of memory, this book analyses cinematic representations of the Occupation as expressions of commemoration. It charts the evolution of Second World War stories told on French screens and argues that more recent films are concerned with the collective experience of the Occupation, the pedagogical responsibility of historical films and with adopting a self-reflective approach to their narrative structures. With its catalogue-like structure and clear thematic analysis of key concepts such as resistance, collaboration and legacy, Reframing remembrance is an informative and accessible investigation into French cinema and its treatment of the Second World War.

Jonathan Dunnage

appointment of Marshal Pietro Badoglio as Prime Minister, following Mussolini’s temporary overthrow on 25 July 1943, was of limited consequence for most policemen, indicating the high level of continuity of the new Government with the fascist state. In September 1943, the Nazisoccupation of all but the southern-most regions of the Italian peninsula and the creation under their auspices of the Italian Social Republic (RSI) saw an attempted revival of fascism in its more radical original form. After twenty years of relatively painless Dunnage, Mussolini's policemen

in Mussolini’s policemen
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Mussolini’s policemen and the transition to the Republic
Jonathan Dunnage

political forces which they had been instrumental in persecuting during the ventennio. In parts of Italy which had witnessed Nazi occupation and civil war, the situation for the police was particularly critical. Not only did policemen face suspension, but they could fall victim to the violent retribution of the partisans, as illustrated in the previous chapter. Moreover, they had to ‘tolerate’ the appointment of prefects, questori and police commissioners among partisans, as well as the founding of an auxiliary Polizia Partigiana.1 This led to notable tensions inside

in Mussolini’s policemen
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The Nazi occupation of Alderney

The Nazi occupation of the small Channel Island of Alderney irreversibly altered the landscape and lives of both the contemporary population and the subsequent generations. The evacuation of the island’s 1,500 inhabitants in June 1940 paved the way for a period of occupation by the Germans that would last until May 1945. In 1941, Hitler issued an order to fortify the Channel Islands and make them an ‘impregnable fortress’; thus creating ‘Adolf Island’. This book seeks to collate and combine historical and archaeological data relating the occupation landscape in order to produce the definitive guide to the events that took place during this period. It addresses yet unanswered questions relating to the purpose of the occupation, the lives of the labourers, known and missing, and the post-war reaction to this legacy.

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Caroline Sturdy Colls and Kevin Simon Colls

Drawing upon extensive archival research, this chapter considers the identities and demographic of the forced, slave and less-than-slave labourers sent to Alderney during the Nazi occupation. Refocusing the attention on individual and collective experiences, it demonstrates the various ways in which the nature of the work being undertaken, and the attitudes towards individuals and groups, affected the daily lives of the labourers, and how their treatment was influenced by the wider Nazi forced and slave labour programme implemented across Europe. The latter is especially important as whether the construction works on Alderney were undertaken for military/economic gain or as part of a wider strategy of persecution levied at minority groups remains one of the most contentious issues surrounding Alderney’s occupation.

in 'Adolf Island'
Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

incompatible images of the Alsatians as victims of retaliatory Nazi violence or as resisters to Nazi occupation. On the German side, the Alsatians’ victimisation was emphasised. The men were described as ‘family fathers’ who had been executed for helping their sons evade German military conscription. French sources, on the other hand, described the Alsatians as members of the Maquis (Resistance fighters) and connected their sacrifice to the general French effort to expel the Nazis from France.6 This distinction had the potential to affect the German and French populations

in Human remains in society
Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

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Jewish refugees in Manchester
Bill Williams

1 Introduction: Jewish refugees in Manchester In June 1933, five months after Hitler’s appointment to the Chancellorship of Germany, nearly 500,000 people of the ‘Mosaic faith’ lived in Germany.1 An unknown further number of those of Jewish origin who had either abandoned their beliefs or been converted to some branch of Christianity, were soon to be defined by Nazi legislation as Jewish by race, and therefore as the proper subject of official discrimination. The number of Jews of both kinds under Nazi control was increased by the Nazi occupation of Austria, with

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’