Stefania Parigi

Cesare Zavattini is principally remembered as a theoretician of neorealism and as the author of the screenplays of some of the major post-war films of Vittorio De Sica ( Sciuscià/Shoeshine 1946, Ladri di biciclette/Bicycle Thief 1948, Miracolo a Milano/Miracle in Milan 1951, Umberto D . 1952). In fact, his experience was more extensive and varied. He worked in different media and was especially

in Cinema – Italy
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The Face of the Star in Neorealisms Urban Landscape
Ora Gelley

Although Europa 51 (1952) was the most commercially successful of the films Roberto Rossellini made with the Hollywood star, Ingrid Bergman, the reception by the Italian press was largely negative. Many critics focussed on what they saw to be the ‘unreal’ or abstract quality of the films portrayal of the postwar urban milieu and on the Bergman character‘s isolation from the social world. This article looks at how certain structures of seeing that are associated in the classical style with the woman as star or spectacle - e.g., the repetitious return to her fixed image, the resistance to pulling back from the figure of the woman in order to situate her within a determinate location and set of relationships between characters and objects - are no longer restricted to her image but in fact bleed into or “contaminate” the depiction of the world she inhabits. In other words, whereas the compulsive return to the fixed image of the woman tends to be contained or neutralised by the narrative economy and editing patterns (ordered by sexual difference) of the classical style, in Rossellini‘s work this ‘insistent’ even aberrant framing in relation to the woman becomes a part of the (female) characters and the cameras vision of the ‘pathology’ of the urban landscape in the aftermath of the war.

Film Studies
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Author: Stefania Parigi

This book is a collection of essays on the author's journeys taken during the past fifteen years. They are journeys in time and of memory about a country that no longer exists: the Italy of Roberto Rossellini's Paisà, torn by war and sometimes in conflict with the American 'liberators'. The essays concentrate on the structure and forms of the films they discuss; a confrontation of cultures, the Italy of Luchino Visconti, a territory more cultural than physical, subject to transfigurations wrought by a sophisticated intellectual who viewed the world through the lens of his sensibilities. The first three essays focus on discussions and films relating to neorealism. They seek problems and inconsistencies in points of view and prejudices that have become institutionalized in popular accounts of neorealism. The next two essays are dedicated to Visconti's commemorative and antiquarian vein, to the central importance of mise en scène (in the theatrical sense) in his films. The final essay is an attempt to recover an archetypical image in Pasolini's work. The characteristics shared by these essays include a sensitivity and knowledge of the cinema, genuine scholarship, and the ability to see aesthetic resonances to painting, literature, poetry, music. The contrast between darkness and light in Paisà and in Visconti's Vaghe stelle dell'Orsais most incisive and dramatic. They are all traversed by recurrent themes and obsessions: the contrast between darkness and light, night and day.

This book traces discussions about international relations from the middle ages up to the present times. It presents central concepts in historical context and shows how ancient ideas still affect the way we perceive world politics. It discusses medieval theologians like Augustine and Aquinas whose rules of war are still in use. It presents Renaissance humanists like Machiavelli and Bodin who developed our understanding of state sovereignty. It argues that Enlightenment philosophers like Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau laid the basis for the modern analyses of International Relations (IR). Later thinkers followed up with balance-of-power models, perpetual-peace projects and theories of exploitation as well as peaceful interdependence. Classic IR theories have then been steadily refined by later thinkers – from Marx, Mackinder and Morgenthau to Waltz, Wallerstein and Wendt.

The book shows that core ideas of IR have been shaped by major events in the past and that they have often reflected the concerns of the great powers. It also shows that the most basic ideas in the field have remained remarkably constant over the centuries.

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Stefania Parigi

Paisà had its premiere at the Venice Film Festival in 1946. It is considered the most emblematic film of neorealism, though the term ‘neorealism’ was not yet part of critical debate until early in 1948. Rossellini had made his first film in 1939, Fantasia sottomarina / Underwater Fantasy , a short film on fish, halfway between a documentary and a fairy-tale. By 1946, he was shooting his sixth

in Cinema – Italy
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Sam Rohdie

appliquer’ … Ces considérations prétendent établir des certitudes là ou l’oeuvre d’art est essentiellement incertaine. ( Youssef Ishaghpour ) 3 Pasolini’s film theory is a sustained opposition to what he called naturalism, a phenomenon that he principally identified with Italian neo-realism. His theory was based on, in his own words, a heretical understanding of

in Montage
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Stefania Parigi

on discussions and films relating to neorealism. They seek problems and inconsistencies in points of view and prejudices that have become institutionalized in popular accounts of neorealism, for example, those linked to the idea of a realism as a mimetic and objective reproduction of reality and those emphasizing a moral stance incapable of developing into an aesthetic one. I have strictly pursued a symbolic dimension

in Cinema – Italy
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The coming of the neo-liberal world
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

International Relations scholars. It argues that the scholarly study of International Relations distanced itself from the structural approaches of the past and instead embraced the core ideas of rejuvenated liberalism. This is evident for example in the so-called Neorealist approach which gained an enormous influence in the International Relations community during the 1980s. Although it retained the holistic view that marked structuralism, its basic logic rested on the individualistic rationalism of liberal economic theories. Neorealism was a child of its times. And it

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
A framework of inclusion and exclusion
Mark Webber

dimension, but equally have been characterised by intra-state conflict. Further, the general pattern of inter-state security relations in Europe has been more that of cooperation than conflict. The inaccuracy of Mearsheimer’s prediction stems from the logic of his theoretical starting point, that of neo-realism. For Mearsheimer states exist in an international system that is anarchic in the sense that there

in Inclusion, exclusion and the governance of European Security
Trauma, history, myth
Guy Austin

tasked with the creation of an embryonic national cinema? To what extent were ahistorical concerns (for example the representation of traditional, precolonial activities) able to find representation? Finally, how could film represent the trauma of a nation without rapidly transforming history into myth? At play here are not just the external influences of Italian neorealism, of Hollywood and of Soviet cinema, which lend their

in Algerian national cinema