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Monarchy and visual culture in colonial Indonesia
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Photographic subjects examines photography at royal celebrations during the reigns of Wilhelmina (1898–1948) and Juliana (1948–80), a period spanning the zenith and fall of Dutch rule in Indonesia. It is the first monograph in English on the Dutch monarchy and the Netherlands’ modern empire in the age of mass and amateur photography.

This book reveals how Europeans and Indigenous people used photographs taken at Queen’s Day celebrations to indicate the ritual uses of portraits of Wilhelmina and Juliana in the colonies. Such photographs were also objects of exchange across imperial networks. Photograph albums were sent as gifts by Indigenous royals in ‘snapshot diplomacy’ with the Dutch monarchy. Ordinary Indonesians sent photographs to Dutch royals in a bid for recognition and subjecthood. Professional and amateur photographers associated the Dutch queens with colonial modernity and with modes of governing difference across an empire of discontiguous territory and ethnically diverse people. The gendered and racial dimensions of Wilhelmina’s and Juliana’s engagement with their subjects emerge uniquely in photographs, which show these two women as female kings who related to their Dutch and Indigenous subjects in different visual registers.

Photographic subjects advances methods in the use of photographs for social and cultural history, reveals the entanglement of Dutch and Indonesian histories in the twentieth century, and provides a new interpretation of Wilhelmina and Juliana as imperial monarchs. The book is essential for scholars and students of colonial history, South-east Asian and Indonesian studies, and photography and visual studies.

The Dutch colonial world during Queen Wilhelmina’s reign, 1898–1948
Susie Protschky

were made in imperial settings. Monarchy, photography and the Netherlands East Indies Queen Wilhelmina was by no means alone in never personally touring her colonies. Queen Victoria also preferred to stay at home. Nevertheless, royal tours were increasingly common in these queens’ lifetimes: the Belgian Prince (later King) Albert travelled to Congo in 1909; the Italian King Vittorio Emanuele III visited Somalia in 1934 and Libya in 1938; no fewer than eleven British royals toured Ceylon, from the 1860s to 1947

in Photographic subjects
Susie Protschky

she had received from the people of the Netherlands East Indies: a costly bracelet made from South African diamonds set in the pattern of a crown flanked by two garuda birds. 6 Perhaps the bracelet and the jaunty young queen reminded Van Baal of better times. For in 1955 Dutch New Guinea was the last remaining outpost of the Netherlands’ former empire in Asia, which had reached its modern zenith during Wilhelmina's reign, but was formally dissolved within a year of her heir

in Photographic subjects
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Sultans and the state
Jean Gelman Taylor

This volume’s title, Monarchies and Decolonisation in Asia , appears to suggest a linear progression in the histories of colonies. Yet monarchies existed in Asia prior to colonial rule, and in many places they continued to exist under colonialism. Decolonisation in Indonesia, for instance, has proved to be a rejection of both indigenous and colonial forms of rule. The colony known as the Netherlands East Indies ended up as the Republic of Indonesia in 1945, 1 and yet it is worth noting that the larger, colonial-era political organisations of the 1930s

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Unity in diversity at royal celebrations
Susie Protschky

Photographs of games and competitions, traditional dances adapted to new purposes and the distinctive costumes of folk and ethnic ‘types’ at royal celebrations appeared frequently in the photographs of European elites throughout the Dutch colonial world. 3 In the Netherlands East Indies, such photographs attest to the labour migrations encouraged or coerced by Dutch colonial agriculture and industry. They depict the mixed and mobile Indonesian communities whose cultural forms were given a space for display at festivals for

in Photographic subjects
Yogyakarta during the Indonesian decolonisation, 1942–50
Bayu Dardias Kurniadi

Special Region amid the general disestablishment of sultans and rajas in Indonesian local politics during the 1950s. The Japanese occupation, 1942–45 Japanese forces occupied the Netherlands East Indies, displacing the Dutch, from 1942 to 1945. The Sultan of Yogyakarta and the ruler of Pakualaman used the Japanese occupation of Indonesia to strengthen their legitimacy by implementing reforms that would prove useful during the formation of the Yogyakarta Special Region. First, Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX of Yogyakarta and Pakualam VIII sacrificed their traditional

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
R. Y. Jennings

New Guinea] is and always has been—historically as well as constitutionally (legally)—an integral part of the territory of Indonesia; that is to say, also, of the former Netherlands East Indies’.2 A case which likewise proceeds in part on similar lines is the claim of Morocco to be entitled to incorporate the newly-­independent territory of Mauretania;3 and also the claim of Iraq to Kuwait.4 The limitations of this kind of argument were made apparent by the reply of the Netherlands delegate in the debate on West New Guinea in the General Assembly’s First Committee.5

in The Acquisition of Territory in International Law
Indonesian perceptions of power relationships with the Dutch
Jean Gelman Taylor

. Indonesia’s 17,000 islands, 300-plus ethnic groups, sultanates and statelets merged piecemeal into a single political entity through actions of the Dutch over three centuries. Today’s Republic of Indonesia is the successor state to the colony known as the Netherlands East Indies and has the same boundaries. Older history books narrated Indonesian history as a series of broken sequences. Opening chapters began

in Crowns and colonies
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Portraits of the monarch in colonial ritual
Susie Protschky

counterparts in the British empire, the men appointed as governors-general of the Netherlands East Indies often had a class-based affinity with the Dutch crown. 13 Of the ten men who served during Wilhelmina's reign, half were aristocrats themselves, mostly jonkheeren (noblemen) and one graaf (count). 14 Governors-general were answerable to the Dutch parliament through the Minister for the Colonies in The Hague. But in the Indies, much like the viceroys of British crown

in Photographic subjects
With a New Introduction by Marcelo G. Kohen
Author:

The author of this book, Sir Robert Yewdall Jennings, was one of the most distinguished British specialists in the field of International Law of the last century. The book starts with the traditional analysis of the different 'modes' of acquisition of territorial sovereignty as developed in doctrine since the very beginning of the science of international law. One of the merits of the book is precisely that, instead of focusing exclusively on or absolutely disregarding them, an approach other authors had adopted, it harmonizes the traditional modes with other elements that may influence the determination of sovereignty and that were not taken into account in the past. The traditional five 'modes' of acquisition of territorial sovereignty described by doctrine were: (1) occupation (2) prescription (3) cession (4) accession or accretion and (5) subjugation or conquest. In order to encompass other elements coming into play in the analysis of the acquisition of territorial sovereignty, the book included references to two devices of use in any dispute about territory: intertemporal law and the critical date. To complete the picture, a separate chapter of the book considers the place of recognition, acquiescence and estoppel in the realm of acquisition of title to territorial sovereignty. The book also clarifies the scope of estoppel in the field. It cannot by itself constitute a root of title, but it can assist in its determination.