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This chapter focuses on the representation of a stretch of new world terrain – the mountain range known as the Blue Mountains in New South Wales, Australia – and makes some comparisons with the representation of mountains in Snowdonia, Wales. Here Wales is used as a prompt, but not as a focus for discussion, in order to consider its antipodean counterpart in ‘New Wales

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness

For the first ninety years after colonization, indigenous people in New South Wales were unable to give evidence in court. Only after the Evidence Further Amendment Act 1876 provided for a witness to make a declaration in lieu of an oath was testimony by Aboriginal people readily admissible in courts of law in New South Wales. Prior to 1876 testimony by Aboriginal

in Law, history, colonialism
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Placing the Irish and Scots in Colonial Australia

This book takes two of the most influential minority groups of white settlers in the British Empire—the Irish and the Scots—and explores how they imagined themselves within the landscapes of its farthest reaches, the Australian colonies of Victoria and New South Wales. Using letters and diaries as well as records of collective activities such as committee meetings, parades and dinners, it examines how the Irish and Scots built new identities as settlers in the unknown spaces of Empire. Utilizing critical geographical theories of ‘place’ as the site of memory and agency, the book considers how Irish and Scots settlers grounded their sense of belonging in the imagined landscapes of south-east Australia. Emphasizing the complexity of colonial identity formation and the ways in which this was spatially constructed, it challenges conventional understandings of the Irish and Scottish presence in Australia. The opening chapters locate the book's themes and perspectives within a survey of the existing historical and geographical literature on empire and diaspora. These pay particular attention to the ‘new’ imperial history and to alternative transnational and ‘located’ understandings of diasporic consciousness. Subsequent chapters work within these frames and examine the constructions of place evinced by Irish and Scottish emigrants during the outward voyage and subsequent processes of pastoral and urban settlement, and in religious observance.

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Victorian orphans, culture and empire

This book argues that Victorian culture perceived the orphan as a scapegoat - a promise and a threat, a poison and a cure. It first establishes a discursive context in which to read the orphan figure as embodying a difference within the family. To do so, it describes the figure of Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights against a number of discourses - namely, those of the foundling, the orphan as foreigner, and the orphan as criminal. The book then looks at the role of the orphan and popular orphan adventure narratives in policing and extending empire. It considers Charles Dickens's 'The Perils of Certain English Prisoners, and Their Treasure in Women, Children, Silver and Jewels' within the context of both the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and Dickens's own imperial sympathies. The book also offers the historical context for the schemes adopted at the time for emigrating orphans. It focuses on the three main destinations -Bermuda, New South Wales and Canada - in order to consider the motivations behind the emigrating of orphans and the contemporary evaluations of it. In this historical context, the book positions Rose Macaulay's Orphan Island (1924), which in its Utopian framework poses problems for the both the rationale of the schemes and for current debates within post-colonial studies. It further looks at the exiling of difference, in George Eliot's Daniel Deronda and the return of the exiled orphan from the colonies to the heart of empire, London, in Dickens's The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

An ecological approach to rural cinema-going

This paper considers the impact of extra-filmic elements on the cultural decision-making behaviours of a small rural Australian cinema audience, focusing on the rural New South Wales village of Cobargo in the late 1920s. In considering how why such fragile rural picture show operations either failed or became successful, it is critical to take account of rural geographies, particularly in terms of early road development, and the nature and state of road bridges in flood-prone areas. The paper argues that these elements are part of a broad ecosystemic framework for cultural decision-making which can assist in our interpretation of early newspaper advertising and promotion for picture show programs.

Film Studies
Dividing the Crown in early colonial New South Wales, 1808–10

Great seals ‘Historians seldom trouble themselves much about the Great Seal of England’, wrote Sir Hilary Jenkinson in 1943. 1 His statement is just as true now for the great seals of England and all British and British-descended jurisdictions, including New South Wales. So, what is a Great Seal, and why should any historian ‘trouble themself

in Crowns and colonies
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Tactics and networks

utilised over a number of campaigns and maintained by permanent representatives in the metropole. This chapter considers lobbyists campaigning on the Cape Colony or New South Wales, demonstrating that lobbyists who dealt with quite different issues nevertheless shared an understanding of colonial power and how it might be manipulated. Colonial pressure groups faced many of the same

in Colonial connections, 1815–45
Quarantine and the colony

mainland. Beyond Melbourne, captains navigated further through the Strait, past a string of islands. Crews who could not catch a favourable wind into the Strait, or who were headed for Hobart, sailed around the south of Van Diemen’s Land. By the 1840s, the majority of ships bound for Sydney also chose this southern route. Depending on the winds, it took around one or two weeks to sail the final seven hundred miles from Cape Otway to Sydney. The sight of Mount Dromedary (Mount Gulaga) rising above the New South Wales coast marked the

in Health, medicine, and the sea
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) By imposing European concepts of bounded, alienable property on an as yet barely comprehended Australian landscape, nineteenth-century land legislation in New South Wales and Victoria provided an opportunity for Irish and Scottish settlers like Fetherstonhaugh and Moodie to inscribe their identity on that landscape in an act of possession. In embodying a high level of environmental ignorance, the

in Imperial spaces
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Eliza Baldwinson (1832)

months after the women had first set foot on the ship – until the end of January, fever dominated the surgeon’s sick list, before finally they arrived in Sydney on 19 February 1833. The number of deaths during the voyage – eight – had been high, but the voyage had been a long one, and moreover, it had begun with cholera. Eliza’s experience was visceral indeed, as she suffered from cholera, fever, and then scurvy, and yet, like so many thousands of others, she survived, and began her new life in New South Wales. Through the

in Health, medicine, and the sea