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Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
and
Lauren Harris

/or vulnerable North Koreans, but data from agencies working inside the country indicates that a prolonged situation of food insecurity and inadequate access to quality healthcare and hygiene facilities persists. 2 The international humanitarian system in the DPRK includes non-governmental organisations (NGOs), international organisations (IOs) and bilateral organisations. There is no known independent civil society in the DPRK. Humanitarians work with various national and local bodies to deliver their programmes. Humanitarian agencies began working in the country in the mid

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sean Healy
and
Victoria Russell

Introduction This is the story of a meeting between a humanitarian operation and a conspiracy theory, and what happened next. The operation was a search and rescue mission run on the Mediterranean by many different non-governmental organisations (NGOs), including Médecins Sans Frontières, 1 aiming to save the lives of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers lost at sea. The conspiracy theory 2 was that this operation was the opposite of what it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Gender Norm Change during Displacement?
Michelle Lokot

Introduction With the increased focus on gender across the humanitarian sector, gender analysis has become more important to humanitarian actors, including international non-governmental organisations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and local NGOs. Promoting ‘gender equality and women’s empowerment’ often motivates humanitarian actors, however there is no consensus on what this concept means or how it is measured ( Cornwall and Rivas

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Difficulties of a Randomised Clinical Trial Confronted with Real Life in Southern Niger
Mamane Sani Souley Issoufou

non-governmental organisation (NGO) ( Fassin, 2010 ; Likin, 2009 ; Redfield, 2005 ), creating an in-house research institution has helped legitimate that action via evidence-based medicine. Epicentre conducted the trial from 2015 to 2017, and the vaccine which seemed to offer a solution to the logistical, environmental and financial constraints faced by the health systems in sub-Saharan Africa met MSF’s commitment to improving developing countries’ access to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Small state identity in the Cold War 1955–75

In the twenty years after Ireland joined the UN in 1955, one subject dominated its fortunes: Africa. The first detailed study of Ireland's relationship with that continent, this book documents its special place in Irish history. It describes the missionaries, aid workers, diplomats, peacekeepers, and anti-apartheid protesters at the heart of Irish popular understanding of the developing world. It chronicles Africa's influence on Irish foreign policy, from decolonisation and the end of empire, to apartheid and the rise of foreign aid. Adopting a fresh, and strongly comparative approach, this book shows how small and middling powers like Ireland, Canada, the Netherlands and the Nordic states used Africa to shape their position in the international system, and how their influence waned with the rise of the Afro-Asian bloc. O’Sullivan details the link between African decolonisation and Ireland's self-defined post-colonial identity: at the UN, in the Congo, South Africa, Rhodesia, and Biafra – even in remote mission stations in rural Africa. When growing African radicalism made that role difficult to sustain, this book describes how missionaries, NGOs, and anti-apartheid campaigners helped to re-invent the Irish government's position, to become the ‘moral conscience’ of the EC. Offering a fascinating account of small state diplomacy and identity in a vital period for the Cold War, and a unique perspective on African decolonisation, this book provides essential insight for scholars of Irish history, African history, international relations, and the history of NGOs, as well as anyone interested in why Africa holds such an important place in the Irish public imagination.

Sidi NDiaye

This article describes the brutalisation of the bodies of Tutsi and Jewish victims in 1994 and during the Second World War, respectively, and contrasts the procedures adopted by killers to understand what these deadly practices say about the imaginaries at work in Rwanda and Poland. Dealing with the infernalisation of the body, which eventually becomes a form of physical control, this comparative work examines the development of groups and communities of killers in their particular social and historical context. Different sources are used, such as academic works, reports from victims organisations and non-governmental organisations, books, testimonies and film documentaries.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Fernando Espada

some non-governmental organisations in ‘The Appeal of Civil Disobedience in the Central Mediterranean: German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3 ’ is an important reminder that human dignity does not make sense if it’s circumscribed by geographical borders. Neumann also reminds us that many citizen and grass roots organisations were ready to disobey their government’s narrow interpretation of who is entitled to what rights – which suggests that the motivations of organisations like Sea-Watch should not be seen as mere gestures of hospitality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Marc Le Pape
and
Michaël Neuman

aftermath of the events in Biafra – in particular, the emergence of different types of humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and use of the word ‘genocide’ – and memory of the Holocaust – to internationalise a cause and mobilise against extreme acts of violence. Hakim Khaldi, Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni were all aid workers during the Syrian conflict and all analysed the situations they observed in the field. Khaldi, as a member of an international humanitarian organisation, tells of the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Bridging Ethical Divides in Digital Refugee Livelihoods
Evan Easton-Calabria

Norwegian Refugee Council are development actors like the International Trade Centre and the International Labour Organization, and even private sector actors and supporters like Upwork and Tent ( Upwork, 2022 ). Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working to place refugees in remote digital work today find themselves in the peculiar position of acting as online market intermediaries between refugees and corporations in the digital economy. This ranges from helping refugees

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
Valentina Azarova

As States and intergovernmental organisations (IGO) face a range of new challenges, non-governmental organisations are playing an increasingly important role in global governance. 1 Non-governmental organisations have led the development of a range of international treaties, triggered the domestication of international norms in a host of states, and documented abusive State and non-State actor practices in the most perilous environments. Non-governmental organisations are commonly referred to as norm entrepreneurs, but a substantial number of actors consider

in International organisations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law