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Witnessing deportation and hierarchies of (non-)citizenship
Luke de Noronha

Chapter 6 Family and friends: witnessing deportation and hierarchies of (non-)citizenship The previous four chapters examined how and why Jason, Ricardo, Chris and Denico were deported. By describing pro­cesses of criminalisation, illegalisation and expulsion, I developed a critical account of immigration controls in contemporary Britain. In Jason’s chapter, I argued that deportation begins long before anyone gets on a plane, which means that immigration controls both produce and shape various forms of inequality within Britain. When discussing Ricardo

in Deporting Black Britons

When a person is not recognised as a citizen anywhere, they are typically referred to as ‘stateless’. This can give rise to challenges both for individuals and for the institutions that try to govern them. Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship breaks from tradition by relocating the ‘problem’ to be addressed from one of statelessness to one of citizenship. It problematises the governance of citizenship – and the use of citizenship as a governance tool. It traces the ‘problem of citizenship’ from global and regional governance mechanisms to national and even individual levels. Part I examines how statelessness is produced and maintained, for example through global development efforts and refugee protection instruments. Part II traces the lived reality of statelessness, starting at conception and the issuance of birth certificates, then exploring the experiences of youth, workers, and older people. Part III demands a rethinking of the governance of citizenship. It interrogates existing efforts to address challenges associated with statelessness and suggests alternatives. Contributions span global regions and contributors include activists, affected persons, artists, lawyers, leading academics from a range of disciplines, and national and international policy experts. Written text, visual art, and poetry are also used to examine complex concepts central to this discussion. Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship rejects the idea that statelessness and stateless persons are a problem. It argues that the reality of statelessness helps to uncover a more fundamental challenge: the problem of citizenship.


Deporting Black Britons provides an ethnographic account of deportation from the UK to Jamaica. It traces the painful stories of four men who were deported after receiving criminal convictions in the UK. For each of the men, all of whom had moved to the UK as children, deportation was lived as exile – from parents, partners, children and friends – and the book offers portraits of survival and hardship in both the UK and Jamaica. Based on over four years of research, Deporting Black Britons describes the human consequences of deportation, while situating deportation stories within the broader context of policy, ideology, law and violence. It examines the relationship between racism, criminalisation and immigration control in contemporary Britain, suggesting new ways of thinking about race, borders and citizenship in these anti-immigrant times. Ultimately, the book argues that these stories of exile and banishment should orient us in the struggle against violent immigration controls, in the UK and elsewhere.

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Jan Lukas Buterman

them stateless in the sense of a lack of functioning citizenship (Kingston, 2019 ), a condition of noncitizenship (Bloom, 2018 ). Noncitizenship presents complications for crossing borders, whether for temporary purposes such as work or travel, or permanent migration. International travel documentation standards are established by the International Civil Aviation Organisation

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
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are not a matter solely of migrants; rather, an abolitionist lens enables us to see the recursive production of degrees of non-citizenship and the partial migrantisation of some citizens. The confinement continuum – that is, the ‘continuum of unfreedoms’ (Cassidy, 2019 : 48) which chokes migrants’ time beyond their mobility and destructures their life projects – needs to be tackled by carefully

in Border abolitionism
Areej Alshammiry

. First, the Bidoon represent a prime example of in situ statelessness (the language of in situ statelessness is challenged in Fazal, this volume). Second, it provides a clear example in which national identity formation functions as ‘exaltation’, in which statelessness (and other forms of non-citizenship) is co-produced with citizenship. Third, statelessness in Kuwait was produced

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Sanctuary and security in Toronto, Canada
Graham Hudson

Services Act and regulations allow for, but do not require, the sharing of information with federal authorities if this is necessary to facilitate an investigation. The existence of a federal arrest warrant would fall into that category, but that is what the CPIC is for. The TPS use the Warrant Response Centre to check status, and so obviously do not have any basis for suspecting that a person they have encountered has an outstanding warrant issued against them. It is probable that race, ethnicity, or language are associated with non-citizenship and that racial profiling

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
Applying intersectionality to understand statelessness in Europe
Deirdre Brennan
Nina Murray
, and
Allison J. Petrozziello

all peoples must continue. In short, power and struggles to shift how it is wielded within (and beyond) state institutions are central to feminist theories of governance. There are two ways in which such an approach can be potentially transformative. First, it is sometimes assumed that on a state level, non-citizenship of that state and citizenship of that

in Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship
Life in the waiting room
Anne-Marie Fortier

integral to citizenship, but also the uncertainty of citizenship. Put crudely, if citizenship is something to be tested, then its certainty cannot be guaranteed. Third and relatedly, citizenisation is a performative border-marking process that distinguishes citizens from noncitizens/migrants, but where noncitizenship is largely ‘no more than a hypothetical category that enables the terms of citizenship to be articulated’ (Bhattacharyya 2015 : 29; emphasis added). In contemporary domesticating governance, citizenship has become a key site where

in Uncertain citizenship