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An introduction
Johannes Ljungberg
Erik Sidenvall

. As Jonathan Sheehan has remarked, ‘religion was the dominant qualification of the kind of Enlightenment peculiar to distinct geographical areas’. 6 Presbyterianism directed the course of Enlightenment in Scotland, 7 reform Catholicism in Austria, 8 and in the Nordic countries there was, hardly surprisingly, a Lutheran Enlightenment. 9 There is no shortage of examples. Specialist historians of various kinds have pushed these insights even further. Advocacy of many of the features that we tend to associate with the

in Religious Enlightenment in the eighteenth-century Nordic countries
International networks and the transmission of ideas
Mary Hilson

1 Co-operation in the Nordic countries before 1914: international networks and the transmission of ideas Nordic co-operative societies emerged during the nineteenth century as part of the wave of popular associations that included the free churches, the folk high schools, the temperance movement, voluntary fire brigades and civil defence corps, and the labour movement.1 There is a broad historical consensus that, aided by a relatively benign and tolerant state, the nineteenth century popular movements were a means to channel popular dissent and avoid violent

Birgitta Åseskog

146 CASE STUDIES 7 National machinery for gender equality in Sweden and other Nordic countries birgitta åseskog Introduction In this chapter I want to describe the ‘Nordic model’ of national machinery for gender equality. I want to show the similarities between the countries, but also the differences. The official Nordic cooperation on gender equality, conducted by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is based on the development of pilot projects and reports on priority areas. It provides excellent opportunities to develop new methods and strategies and is a forum

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Reason and orthodoxy

This volume explores how changes that we tend to associate with the Enlightenment were intertwined with practices and rationales within Lutheran confessional culture in the two Nordic states during the long eighteenth century. It does so by examining several well-rehearsed topics of Enlightenment studies. Scientific novelties, realized policies, and reading as well as printing practices are all themes that return in this book; here they are understood in relation to the various modes and rationales of confessional culture. More precisely, all the contributions to the present volume deal with ideas related to three ‘R’s: reason, rationalism and reform. The eighteenth century encountered in this volume is not only a story of clashes and conflicts. Reason is not necessarily seen as replacing religious belief, nor is rationalism viewed as opposed to reasonings occurring within religious policies or institutions. Evidence of reform may in some cases be interpreted as expressions of Enlightenment; but there is a recurring echo of previous religious transformations and measures promoting renewal, not least in relation to the historical experience of the Lutheran Reformation. Therefore, the writers have chosen to place the notion of ‘religious Enlightenment’ at the core of this book. All the various chapters proceed from this fundamental conception in their explorations of ideas and practices that were embedded in a landscape shaped by both reason and orthodoxy.


The consumer co-operative movement was one of the most important popular movements in inter-war Europe, but remains under-researched by historians in comparison to other social movements, especially with regard to its international dimensions. From 1895, the co-operative movement also had its own international organisation, the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA).

This book explores the transnational history of consumer co-operation from the establishment of the movement in the second half of the nineteenth century to the outbreak of the Second World War, focusing in particular on co-operation in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The co-operative movement was especially strong throughout the region and the Nordic co-operative federations played a prominent role in the ICA.

The fundamental question explored in the book concerns the meaning of co-operation: was it a social movement or an economic enterprise? Did it aspire to challenge capitalism or to reform it? Did it contain at its heart a political vision for the transformation of society or was it simply a practical guide for organising a business? I argue that it was both, but that an examination of the debates over the different meanings of co-operation can also illuminate broader questions about the emergence of consumer interests in the first half of the twentieth century, especially in a transnational context. Studying the Nordic co-operative movement also helps to shed light on the growing international interest in this region and the emergence of a Nordic “middle way” during the 1930s.

Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women

The role of national machineries, as a way to promote the status of women, acquired international relevance during the World Conference on the International Women's Year, in Mexico City in 1975. This book reflects Division for the Advancement of Women's (DAW) long-standing interest in the area of national machineries, bringing together the experiences, research and insights of experts. The first part of the book sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the conceptual level. It reflects upon five aspects of democratization: devolution or decentralization; the role of political parties; monitoring and auditing systems; and the importance of increasing the presence of women within institutions of the state and government. The second part is a comparative analysis and sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the political level. A combination of factors, including civil society, state bodies and political actors, need to come together for national machineries to function effectively in the interest of gender equality. Next comes the 'lessons learned' by national machineries in mainstreaming gender. National machineries should have an achievable agenda, an important part of which must be 'a re-definition of gender issues. The third part contains case studies that build upon the specific experiences of national machineries in different countries. The successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming is also discussed.

Open Access (free)
The piety of Enlightenment – much more than rationalism
Anders Jarlert

dispelled from Portugal by royal edict, largely as a result of their preaching on the earthquake as a consequence of the sins of Lisbon. The earthquake has been labelled a ‘catalyst for reform’. 31 Portugal was secularized, and the power of the Church was circumscribed. In the Nordic countries the earthquake was reported, with some delay, as the first modern media disaster. The first printed report in Sweden dates from 8 December 1755. 32 But the clergy, and not the press, were still the most important conveyors of

in Religious Enlightenment in the eighteenth-century Nordic countries
Mary Hilson

matters such as neutrality likewise helped to raise the profile of the region within the ICA.2 During the 1930s this perception spread more widely, as Nordic co-operation attracted the interest of foreign journalists. The best-known of these was the American Marquis Childs, whose bestselling book Sweden – the Middle Way (1936) dealt extensively with co-operation. Following Childs, President Roosevelt’s 1936 Inquiry on Co-operative Enterprise in Europe also devoted much of its attention to the Nordic countries, and the documents that it generated provide an important

Abstract only
The globalisation of an idea
Kelly Kollman

common international sources. The third section thus seeks to uncover the nature of this international influence. I illustrate how the partial incorporation of sexual orientation into the European human rights regime in the 1990s coupled with the early adoption of SSU policies by Nordic countries helped to create a European soft law norm for same-sex relationship recognition. The section ends by examining the linkages between the international promotion of the SSU norm and domestic policy change. The third section turns to questions of SSU policy divergence by

in The same-sex unions revolution in western democracies
Open Access (free)
Shirin M. Rai

examines the successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming. Åseskog links the attainment of gender equality with the ‘Nordic welfare state model’. She argues that in the Nordic countries, the ‘political view prevails that society can progress in a more democratic direction only when the competence, knowledge, experience and values of both women and men are acknowledged and allowed to influence and enrich developments in all spheres of society’ (p. 148). The argument here is also that a consensus about the equality of men and women within a political

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?