West Cork and NorthTipperary
The Irish exemplar
In the early Victorian years there were times when the flow of emigrants from
the British Isles was entirely inadequate to the needs of Britain’s expanding
colonial world. In 1840 T.F. Elliot, who was orchestrating a new system of
assisted emigration, told James Stephen in the Colonial Office that the only
people willing to emigrate were unskilled labourers from Scotland and Ireland
and that ‘it is upon these two kingdoms only that the colony can rely for any
constant supply of agricultural labour’.1 In reality
Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.
Support for Sinn Féin, the Dáil and local IRA units
you Again. Michael O’Flanagan (1876–
1942). Priest, Republican, Social Critic (Blackrock: Columba Press,
1993), pp. 104–6.
ill-advised overture to the British government in December 1920
and January 1921, which lost him much credit with his colleagues
in the party.33 O’Flanagan was not the only priest to take up senior
office in Sinn Féin. Father Patrick Gaynor, Killaloe diocesan
schools examiner, was a member of both the national executive
council and the standing committee. He was also the chairman of
the NorthTipperary constituency
social and demographic composition
The economics of mental health services
Table 10.2 Mental health care per capita allocation, 2007 (€m)
Local health office
Expenditure under Variation
Dublin North Central
Source: Brick et al. (2010) based on Staines et al. (2010b).
NorthTipperary Militia, stationed at
Nenagh, County Tipperary, in July 1856. The mutiny occurred for several reasons, most notably because the men had not been paid their enlistment bounty
in full, and when the officers attempted to take back part of their new uniform
the men refused, leading to the mutiny being dubbed by part of the local
press the ‘Battle of the Breeches’. The men then stormed the town, and gained
control of it, which resulted in the calling out of a detachment of regular soldiers,
leading to the death of two militiamen and one soldier of the 41st
30 He continued the family connection to local government, however, serving
as chairman of the NorthTipperary Co. Council and was even a founding
director of the Roscrea Bacon Factory, objected to in parliament in 1906
Hansard, HC Deb. 154, 825–6 (26 Mar. 1906).
31 His youngest son was Frank MacDermot, who attended Downside in the
1890s and was later elected an Independent TD for Roscommon in 1932.
Kyran FitzGerald, ‘Francis Charles “Frank” MacDermot (1886–1975)’,
Dictionary of Irish Biography, v, pp. 902–3.
32 Unless stated otherwise, figures for landholdings
more Protestant electoral areas of Donegal and northTipperary had
a higher proportion of middle-aged single women than areas in which
there was a higher concentration of Catholics.
Was emigration a root cause of high permanent celibacy? At
different times, some parts of the country had a higher rate of female
emigration and vice versa, so the pool of prospective spouses was
diminished. But male and female emigration in the population as a
whole was about equal, and there was population movement within
Ireland itself. Besides, the counties with the lowest marriage
the county medical officers, although they are uneven in
availability, coverage, and findings. According to the Offaly county medical
officer’s report for 1945 only one out of over 1,200 children inspected
under the school medical inspection scheme were malnourished, while in
1934 in Dublin over 6 per cent of inspected children showed signs of malnutrition.35 In NorthTipperary in 1940 over 11 per cent of children were
found to be suffering from malnutrition.36 These wide variations could be
the result of timing – the high rate in NorthTipperary occurred at the
Rooms’ in November 1845.37 Rosse’s liberality was praised at a meeting
of the Mechanics Institute, which he supported with an annual grant of
£100. Sixty-eight pupils had attended, but it was a disappointing number,
and 460 books were lent during the year.38
Under the Poor Law (Ireland) Act (1838), a large area consisting of
part of the King’s County and part of NorthTipperary was designated
Parsonstown Poor Law Union. The union area extended from the Slieve
King’s County Chronicle, 15 October 1845.
Nenagh Guardian, 18 March 1845.
stretching from south and mid Clare through most of Limerick county, north
and mid Cork and also including south Tipperary and much of Waterford.
The evidence suggests less unrest in north Clare and northTipperary as well
as a more extensive zone in south-west Munster, all areas characterised by a
very small settler population to begin with.
A second, large and strikingly compact zone of settler dislocation comprises
much of mid-Leinster, stretching from Dublin westwards through Kildare to
King’s county (Offaly) and Queen’s (Laois) and also including the