Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.
on two aspects of the church’s NorthAmericanexperience which both
complicated and extended its role as it had developed in the home country.
First, the place of the church in North America was very dissimilar from its
position in England. Even in those colonies where it was established, the
church in America lacked the massive apparatus of bishops, dioceses,
archdeaconries, and church courts which had been crucial to its functioning
what is not drawn out in a lesson or a response is as much what
she’s addressing as what is there to be heard and seen. There is a particularly apt
passage in George’s memoir where he lifts the portraits of a photo into the realm of
being – an existential moment that’s ironically shared: ‘In a photo of my
father, Motl, and Meyer, taken in the late 1940s on a park bench near my Uncle Meyer’s
apartment in the Bronx, I see something less than titanic. Scoured by their NorthAmericanexperience, they have been resculpted as mere humans
believed that Lamming articulated his own
NorthAmericanexperience. In the Castle of My Skin was followed
by The Emigrants (1954), Of Age and Innocence (1958),
Season of Adventure (1960), and his collection of essays
The Pleasures of Exile (1960), all of which were written in
London, and all of which were inspired by the predicament of colonial
too often remained parochially centred on European and NorthAmericanexperiences in a handful of cities. ‘The sixties’ have
conventionally been universalised on the basis of myopically Western
speculations about what makes radical politics possible. 3 Speculations that limit our
understandings of what transnational solidarity might look like and the
kinds of political imaginaries and radical aesthetic practices it
fact of exile often witnessed the
weakening of the link with Catholicism.
Some Irish churchmen such as Cardinal Cullen saw in emigration a
sort of panacea for Ireland’s ills in the mid-nineteenth century, while
bishops in places as far apart as London and Toronto saw the other
side and warned of its dangers as the Irish appeared over-represented in
the criminal classes of the host countries. In Chapter 12, David Doyle
examines in particular the NorthAmericanexperience and especially
the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation
‘NorthAmericanexperience and British missionary encounters
in Africa and the Pacific, c . 1800–1850’ in
Martin Daunton and Rick Halpern (eds), Empire and Others: British
Encounters with Indigenous Peoples, 1600–1850 (London
1999), pp. 354–5.
Botha, Fairbairn , p. 66
Diasporic subjectivities and ‘race relations’ dramas (Supply and Demand, The Bill, Second Generation)
1980s, as Lola Young indicates, some black British theorists
started to question the dominance of North American modes of
to what extent is the NorthAmericanexperience of racial differentiation applicable elsewhere, and in particular to Britain? [. . .] Although
there are many similarities, it is important to remember that British
experiences were dissimilar in important respects, and colonialism and
imperial conquest have operated quite differently in North America.
(Young, 1996: 10)
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quality criteria proposed by Vibert (and
common to the NorthAmericanexperience) include the reproducibility of
models and key ﬁndings, and the systematic use of peer review.
In 2005, Vibert shifted his attention to institutional design, proposing
an independent review body that ‘would aim to make the proposals of the
Commission more open to judicial review’, since ‘it would identify any
grounds for subsequent judicial review stemming from any procedural or
factual shortcoming in an impact assessment’ (Vibert, 2005: 30–1).
Vibert looks also at the role of IA in the
, nor, discounting for a
moment the Greece-Turkish fringe in NATO, ever seriously threatened to do
so. How can this be explained?
One of the most popular explanatory theories focuses on the
so-called ‘democratic peace’. Democratic peace theory draws
heavily upon West European and NorthAmericanexperiences – especially
relations amongst member states of the EU – for empirical support of