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The defense policies of new NATO and EU member states

This book blends analysis of Eastern European security needs, foreign threats, domestic political events, and public opinion, in theoretical ways to understand how they lead to future defense postures and commitments for each country in the region. How has NATO and EU membership improved their overall regional defense protection, and what ingredients are still missing for them on an individual state basis? Separate chapters treat clusters of states that make up the various regions of Eastern Europe. For example, the three threatened Baltic states in the north will receive careful analysis. Second, the complex array of states in the Balkan area of Southeastern Europe merit examination, for their security conditions have been quite varied and diverse. For some, NATO and EU membership has become a reality, and for others that possibility does not yet exist. Third, three of the four geographically central states were the ones that first gained full membership in NATO at the earliest possible moment in 1999. At present, Poland in the north has perceived clear threats from Russia since 2014, while the three other East-Central European states possess greater sense of security.

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Stanley R. Sloan

If Brexit was a shock for transatlantic relations, the election victory of Donald Trump was a tsunami, arguably jeopardizing nearly seventy years of transatlantic commitments, political assumptions and security cooperation. This chapter examines the psychological profile of Trump that apparently lies behind virtually every policy utterance, speech or, yes, tweet on the subject. It surveys the contemporary record of Trump after providing a brief comparative historical note on the US participation in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Trump's position of NATO before his election came from his largely profit-oriented, transactional point of view that underlies the "America First" appeal to his base of support. The chapter discusses Trump's policies on NATO after he assumed office and the turmoil felt by NATO at its May 2017 Brussels meeting and the subsequent G7 meeting. It also addresses the issue of whether the US is abdicating leadership of the West.

in Transatlantic traumas
Stanley R. Sloan

In the time of transatlantic traumas, the Islamist terrorist threat and the Russian threat have worked diligently and with some success. This chapter analyses how did these threats develop. It provides the answers for the hatred of Islamists towards Western democracies, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU) for their involvement in the Middle East politics for several decades. The chapter also looks into the internal divisions in Islam, the Sunni and Shia factions, and the conflicts between them which has given rise to turmoil in the Middle East and fleeing of refugees to other countries. It examines the NATO and EU responses to the refugees problem and explains that the Islamist and Russian threats converge in Syria, which had been a Soviet ally since 1956.

in Transatlantic traumas
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Elizabeth Dauphinée

John Hutnyk argues that travel both embraces and constitutes a multitude of technologies that are deployed to make sense of the experiences that are the central purpose of travelling. The technology of the gaze allows for both the representation and the disciplining of the object of study, which is presented as lacking the agency required to articulate alternative, contradictory representations. The similarity between fieldwork and tourism is perhaps most significant in the case of 'independent' or 'adventure' tourists. Adventure tourists are also eager to get to Afghanistan. 'The main reason to go is the bragging rights', says one traveller. 'Mostly it's just cool to be in a place called "Kandahar". In Canada, the Department of National Defence's (DND) Security and Defence Forum offers annual 'field excursions' to sites of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) occupation. Tourism invokes the desire for difference because tourism is a quest for the extraordinary.

in The ethics of researching war
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Mervyn O’Driscoll

The first chancellor of the Federal Republic of German (FRG), Konrad Adenauer, inherited an occupied and provisional state that was mistrusted by its neighbours because of its recent history and its strategic weight. Adenauer's claims that Westpolitik was in the best interests of the German people. It secured democracy, human values, a thriving economy and international normalisation. In 1962 Hans von Herwarth, the state secretary in the office of the federal president, informed the Irish ambassador that he considered that religious differences underlay partition and the difficulties in Anglo-Irish relations. The Irish members interpreted the efforts at a common foreign policy within the Council of Europe as a means to extend and implement North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) policy. Between 1956 and 1959, Dr Felician Prill looked for signs of an emerging Irish awareness of the repercussions of the prolonged discussions about the economic reorganisation of Western Europe.

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
Kosovo and the Balkanisation–integration nexus
Peter van Ham

In Europe's security discourse, 'Kosovo' tends to allegorise the Balkanisation of Europe, the ultimate metaphor of chaos and disintegration which supposedly is the antithesis of the real Europe of peace and stability. The challenge for the EU has been to prevent a slow drift from a postmodern politics of family resemblance to a narcissistic policy of passive self-absorption and epistemic closure. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO's) air campaign has legitimised not only new European order (NEO) realism: it has made another step in legitimising the structure of meaning that circulates in the very debate on 'European security'. The discourse of 'European security' produces a parallel paradigm of European sovereignty, a paradigm that faces serious challenges of local resistance (of the still-resilient state), as well as external opposition.

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Pertti Joenniemi

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO's) bombing campaign in Kosovo and the refusal of most Western leaders to regard it as war have prompted numerous questions about the nature of this episode in European history. The debate on 'Kosovo' indicates that there is considerable uncertainty about war as a concept. A serious critique on the concept of war has surfaced, and alternative articulations are frequently explored. A broad sphere of non-war has emerged. Within a new constellation, war remains first and foremost a memory from the past. There is the sphere of classic war, which remains based on the modern story of states, sovereignty and territoriality. In Kosovo, war has transcended its modern meaning without becoming an integral part of the new and incoming, and without altogether leaving behind the old ideas of war.

in Mapping European security after Kosovo
Katja Biedenkopf and Alexander Mattelaer

Chapter 8, by Katja Biedenkopf and Alexander Mattelaer, covers policy diffusion. It argues that the analytical lens of interdependent policy decisions and mutual influence among foreign policy-makers can add a useful angle to FPA. More specifically, the focus of this chapter is on policy diffusion and transfer as independent variables in the analysis of foreign policy choices. The chapter starts with outlining policy diffusion and transfer as public policy approaches and then has a section that proposes how these two concepts could enrich FPA. The fourth section illustrates the application of a policy diffusion lens to foreign policy decisions, namely the case of planning doctrine for military crisis response operations. It explores the historical origins of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) operational planning doctrine and how it has diffused to other international organizations such as the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN). The concluding section provides some reflections on the contribution and limitations of integrating policy diffusion and transfer into FPA.

in Foreign policy as public policy?
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

It has been said that Turkey’s participation in the Korean War in the 1950s bought it the entrance ticket into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Forty years later, in 1991, Turkey participated in the Gulf War. Not a single Turkish soldier crossed the Iraqi–Turkish border, yet the six or so Turkish divisions that were deployed along the border drew off Iraqi forces from the Kuwaiti battlefield. This was meant by Turkey’s late President, Torgut Ozal, to pave the way towards his country’s accession into the European Union (EU). Was

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
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The defence budget
Michael Clarke

are spending most, but how much of their national wealth they are prepared to sacrifice for the sake of their defence forces. In an alliance like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), where twenty-nine countries of different sizes and varying prosperity commit themselves to collective defence for the common good, defence as a percentage of GDP has become the only politically relevant measure to assess the level of commitment they each make to the alliance as a whole. Headline figures With due

in The challenge of defending Britain