1.4%, a goal that was exceeded by 2018. Despite its small size, the Montenegro plans were compatible with
alliance standards and a meaningful contribution of its own.
In the period leading up to the
2008 NATO Summit, NorthMacedonia/Macedonia held PfP status and was very
interested in becoming a full alliance partner. At that meeting, Georgia
and Ukraine held similar positions about the
This book is a theoretical and ethnographic study of the shifting border between the Republic of North Macedonia and Greece. The central argument is that political borders between states not only restrict or regulate the movement of people and things but are also always porous and permeable, exceeding state governmentality. To support this argument the book draws on scholarship from geology that describes and classifies different kinds of rock porosity. Just as seemingly solid rock is often laden with pores that allow the passage of liquids and gases, so too are ostensibly impenetrable borders laden with forms and infrastructures of passage. This metaphor is theoretically powerful, as it facilitates the idea of border porosities through a varied set of case studies centered on the Greek–Macedonian border. The case studies include: the history of railways in the region, border-town beauty tourism, child refugees during the Greek Civil War, transnational mining corporations and environmental activism, and, finally, a massive, highly politicized urban renewal project. Using interdisciplinary frameworks combining anthropology, history, philosophy, and geology, the book analyzes permeations triggered by the border and its porous nature that underline the empirical, political, and philosophical processes with all their emancipatory or restrictive effects.
This chapter analyzes recent protests and NGO activities against the open-pit gold and copper mines in the Valandovo–Bogdanci–Gevgelija and Halkidiki regions. In the most fertile region and the center of organic food production in the Republic of North Macedonia, the local population and environmental activists organized protests and four referendums, one of which was against the construction of an open-pit copper/gold mine where sulfuric acid and arsenic would be used to extract the metals. A similar open-pit gold mine was constructed on the Halkidiki peninsula in Greece, which prompted collaboration between eco-activists on both sides of the border. This is undeniably border porosity caused by transnational mining corporations and environmental activists opposing the corporate interests.
Moving beyond the 15– 20–year anniversaries to stable policies in a time of constant political turmoil
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki
with the Albanian communities in Kosovo and NorthMacedonia, steps that
have impacted any relations with Serbia.
Three former Yugoslav Republics have also experienced the
same level of equilibrium between surrounding, potential tensions and
protection of their own security. Slovenia was a quick entrant to the EU
and NATO, while those alliance connections came a bit later for Croatia.
However, both have
The impact of counter-terrorism policy on civil society in the EU
Scott N. Romaniuk, Ákos Baumgartner, and Glen M. E. Duerr
security overall. Nowadays, Slovenian police forces support NorthMacedonian 6 forces
for controlling the migration movements and for border control. 7 After the construction
of the Hungarian border fence and Germany’s shift in its
migration approach, Slovenia moved to the stronger protection of
external borders from its previous humanitarian
approach. The country’s capacity
Membership anniversaries and theoretical security models
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki
in Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition to this fundamental
“realist” and geopolitical factor of divergence, the
Balkans represents its own system of geopolitical insecurities
determined by pro-Russian (Greece, Serbia, partially Bulgaria) and
anti-Russian (Croatia, NorthMacedonia, Kosovo, and Albania) countries.
Neighboring Turkey is a traditional NATO partner but has moved in an
authoritarian and pro
As I sit down to finalise this conclusion, the European Championships in international football have just started. Austria's victory over NorthMacedonia during the first round of games was marred by controversy. Austrian striker Marko Arnautović celebrated his goal furiously: shouting, finger pointing, restrained by his teammates. Arnautović has roots in Serbia, who have a strained relationship with Albania. It is alleged that Arnautović's fury was aimed at NorthMacedonia's Gjanni Alioski, who has Albanian roots. The NorthMacedonian
restricting the rights of Romani asylum seekers emerged during the process of the Schengen visa liberalisation for the Western Balkan countries. The Schengen visa requirements for the three post-Yugoslav countries (Serbia, Montenegro and NorthMacedonia) were lifted in late 2009, and, in late 2010 they were lifted for Albania and BIH also (Kacarska, 2015 : 363). As stated by one of the reports from the European Migration Network, an EU-funded group, on the visa liberalisation's impact on destination countries: ‘Several Member States of the EU (Germany, Sweden, Belgium
Sabotage as a citizenship enactment at the fringes
people with a different immigrant status) who can prove their identity. It was citizenship sabotage, an incognito act of lending and borrowing health insurance cards, that revealed this problem.
Through the efforts of legal NGOs and advocacy groups, statelessness came to the agenda of international organisations such as the UNHCR. As part of the #IBelong campaign, the UNHCR published a short video on the predicament of Romani individuals who face statelessness in the former Yugoslavian country of NorthMacedonia. The initial caption of the video
I have made more than 20 formal applications for documents since 1991. I even visited the Ombudsman's Office. They [the authorities] didn't explain things to me, they just asked for documents that I don't have.
Haidar Osmani, stateless Roma in NorthMacedonia, quoted in UNHCR statelessness report (UNHCR, 2017c : 27)
This is a problem many believe has been