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James W. Peterson

1.4%, a goal that was exceeded by 2018. Despite its small size, the Montenegro plans were compatible with alliance standards and a meaningful contribution of its own. North Macedonia In the period leading up to the 2008 NATO Summit, North Macedonia/Macedonia held PfP status and was very interested in becoming a full alliance partner. At that meeting, Georgia and Ukraine held similar positions about the

in Defending Eastern Europe
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Movements of people, objects, and ideas in the southern Balkans
Author: Rozita Dimova

This book is a theoretical and ethnographic study of the shifting border between the Republic of North Macedonia and Greece. The central argument is that political borders between states not only restrict or regulate the movement of people and things but are also always porous and permeable, exceeding state governmentality. To support this argument the book draws on scholarship from geology that describes and classifies different kinds of rock porosity. Just as seemingly solid rock is often laden with pores that allow the passage of liquids and gases, so too are ostensibly impenetrable borders laden with forms and infrastructures of passage. This metaphor is theoretically powerful, as it facilitates the idea of border porosities through a varied set of case studies centered on the Greek–Macedonian border. The case studies include: the history of railways in the region, border-town beauty tourism, child refugees during the Greek Civil War, transnational mining corporations and environmental activism, and, finally, a massive, highly politicized urban renewal project. Using interdisciplinary frameworks combining anthropology, history, philosophy, and geology, the book analyzes permeations triggered by the border and its porous nature that underline the empirical, political, and philosophical processes with all their emancipatory or restrictive effects.

Struggles against open-pit mines on the border
Rozita Dimova

This chapter analyzes recent protests and NGO activities against the open-pit gold and copper mines in the Valandovo–Bogdanci–Gevgelija and Halkidiki regions. In the most fertile region and the center of organic food production in the Republic of North Macedonia, the local population and environmental activists organized protests and four referendums, one of which was against the construction of an open-pit copper/gold mine where sulfuric acid and arsenic would be used to extract the metals. A similar open-pit gold mine was constructed on the Halkidiki peninsula in Greece, which prompted collaboration between eco-activists on both sides of the border. This is undeniably border porosity caused by transnational mining corporations and environmental activists opposing the corporate interests.

in Border porosities
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Moving beyond the 15– 20–year anniversaries to stable policies in a time of constant political turmoil
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

with the Albanian communities in Kosovo and North Macedonia, steps that have impacted any relations with Serbia. Three former Yugoslav Republics have also experienced the same level of equilibrium between surrounding, potential tensions and protection of their own security. Slovenia was a quick entrant to the EU and NATO, while those alliance connections came a bit later for Croatia. However, both have

in Defending Eastern Europe
The impact of counter-terrorism policy on civil society in the EU
Scott N. Romaniuk, Ákos Baumgartner, and Glen M. E. Duerr

security overall. Nowadays, Slovenian police forces support North Macedonian 6 forces for controlling the migration movements and for border control. 7 After the construction of the Hungarian border fence and Germany’s shift in its migration approach, Slovenia moved to the stronger protection of external borders from its previous humanitarian approach. The country’s capacity

in Counter-terrorism and civil society
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Membership anniversaries and theoretical security models
James W. Peterson and Jacek Lubecki

in Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition to this fundamental “realist” and geopolitical factor of divergence, the Balkans represents its own system of geopolitical insecurities determined by pro-Russian (Greece, Serbia, partially Bulgaria) and anti-Russian (Croatia, North Macedonia, Kosovo, and Albania) countries. Neighboring Turkey is a traditional NATO partner but has moved in an authoritarian and pro

in Defending Eastern Europe
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Liam Stanley

As I sit down to finalise this conclusion, the European Championships in international football have just started. Austria's victory over North Macedonia during the first round of games was marred by controversy. Austrian striker Marko Arnautović celebrated his goal furiously: shouting, finger pointing, restrained by his teammates. Arnautović has roots in Serbia, who have a strained relationship with Albania. It is alleged that Arnautović's fury was aimed at North Macedonia's Gjanni Alioski, who has Albanian roots. The North Macedonian

in Britain alone

restricting the rights of Romani asylum seekers emerged during the process of the Schengen visa liberalisation for the Western Balkan countries. The Schengen visa requirements for the three post-Yugoslav countries (Serbia, Montenegro and North Macedonia) were lifted in late 2009, and, in late 2010 they were lifted for Albania and BIH also (Kacarska, 2015 : 363). As stated by one of the reports from the European Migration Network, an EU-funded group, on the visa liberalisation's impact on destination countries: ‘Several Member States of the EU (Germany, Sweden, Belgium

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Sabotage as a citizenship enactment at the fringes

people with a different immigrant status) who can prove their identity. It was citizenship sabotage, an incognito act of lending and borrowing health insurance cards, that revealed this problem. Through the efforts of legal NGOs and advocacy groups, statelessness came to the agenda of international organisations such as the UNHCR. As part of the #IBelong campaign, the UNHCR published a short video on the predicament of Romani individuals who face statelessness in the former Yugoslavian country of North Macedonia. The initial caption of the video

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Total infringement of citizenship

I have made more than 20 formal applications for documents since 1991. I even visited the Ombudsman's Office. They [the authorities] didn't explain things to me, they just asked for documents that I don't have. Haidar Osmani, stateless Roma in North Macedonia, quoted in UNHCR statelessness report (UNHCR, 2017c : 27) This is a problem many believe has been

in The Fringes of Citizenship