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Author: Tom Betteridge

This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.

Mercilla and other Elizabethan types
Margaret Christian

takes the Mercilla episode as illustrative of Spenser’s allegorical method, placing that method in contemporary context by exploring its similarities to the “Hebraic patriotism”1 or “correlative typology”2 of sermons preached to Elizabeth about the Northern Rebellion and the threat posed by Mary Stuart. Sermon types of Elizabeth, Mary, and other threats The first of the perils associated with Mary Stuart’s sojourn in England was the Northern Rebellion. The official “Homelie against Disobedience and Wylfull Rebellion,” released in six parts in 1570, used scriptural

in Spenserian allegory and Elizabethan biblical exegesis
The abortive Northern Rebellion of 1663
Alan Marshall

85 Chapter 4 ‘Plots’ and dissent: the abortive Northern Rebellion of 1663 Alan Marshall W riting his regular letter to the Duke of Ormond in Ireland on 24 October 1663, the Secretary of State, Sir Henry Bennet, Lord Arlington, noted that: ‘The examinations of the prisoners taken at York, sent to the King by the duke of Buckingham, show that there was a real and dangerous plot.’1 Arlington was referring to a recently uncovered plot against the royal regime in the autumn of that year in the North of England, a series of events that Charles II, speaking before

in From Republic to Restoration
Legacies and departures
Editor: Janet Clare

This volume challenges a traditional period divide of 1660, exploring continuities with the decades of civil war, the Republic and Restoration and shedding new light on religious, political and cultural conditions before and after the restoration of church and monarchy. The volume marks a significant development in transdisciplinary studies, including, as it does, chapters on political theory, religion, poetry, pamphlets, theatre, opera, portraiture, scientific experiment and philosophy. Chapters show how unresolved issues at national and local level, residual republicanism and religious dissent, were evident in many areas of Restoration life, and recorded in plots against the regime, memoirs, diaries, historical writing, pamphlets and poems. An active promotion of forgetting, the erasing of memories of the Republic and the reconstruction of the old order did not mend the political, religious and cultural divisions that had opened up during the civil wars. In examining such diverse genres as women’s writing, the prayer book, prophetic writings, the publications of the Royal Society, histories of the civil wars by Clarendon and Hobbes, the poetry and prose of Milton and Marvell, plays and opera, court portraiture and political cartoons the volume substantiates its central claim that the Restoration was conditioned by continuity and adaptation of linguistic and artistic discourses.

A context for The Faerie Queene

Edmund Spenser and the first readers of The Faerie Queene routinely heard their national concerns—epidemics, political plotting, recent Tudor history—discussed in biblical terms. This book samples contemporary sermons, homilies, and liturgies to demonstrate that religious rhetoric, with its routine use of biblical types (for Elizabeth, the Spanish threat, and Mary Stuart, among many others) trained Spenser’s original readers to understand The Faerie Queene’s allegorical method. Accordingly, the first three chapters orient the reader to allegorical and typological reading in biblical commentary, occasional liturgies, and sermons. This pulpit literature illuminates many episodes and characters within the poem, and subsequent chapters discuss some of these. For instance, the genealogies Guyon and Arthur discover in Book Two parallel sermon lists of Elizabeth’s kingly forebears as well as biblical commentary on the genealogies provided for Jesus in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. Florimell’s adventures in Books Three and Four, like contemporary marriage sermons, develop an allegory of the superiority of marriage over the single state. Likewise, the preachers’ treatment of the Northern Rebellion and the threat posed by Mary Stuart show biblical typology in the service of nationalism, much as the allegory of Book Six finds a way to celebrate Elizabeth’s execution of her cousin. In these cases, as in the Souldan episode, Book Six’s analysis of courtesy, and the Mutability Cantos, Elizabethan religious rhetoric lends support to traditional readings of the poem, indicating that Spenser’s original readers probably found The Faerie Queene less conflicted and subversive than many do today.

Tom Betteridge

Mary Queen of Scots but when Elizabeth found out and inevitably expressed strong objections to the match, the duke and his northern associates found themselves almost accidentally in revolt. The rebellion, once started, did take on a religious flavour with deliberate attempts made to invoke the Pilgrimage of Grace. The Northern Rebellion was, however, a far less serious event than the mass popular movement that had rocked Henry VIII’s government in 1536.21 Certainly it is hard to view Norfolk and his accomplices as a serious threat to Elizabeth, although this did not

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
Abstract only
A context for The Faerie Queene
Margaret Christian

“sermoned at large” as well as represented in The Faerie Queene. Accordingly, the seventh chapter, “ ‘a goodly amiable name for mildness’: Mercilla and Other Elizabethan Types,” places Spenser’s allegory in the context of sermons preached to Elizabeth about the Northern Rebellion and Mary Stuart: Edwin Sandys’s and Thomas Drant’s in 1570, Tobias Matthew’s in 1572, John Whitgift’s in 1574, and Peter Wentworth’s and Richard Fletcher’s in 1587. Public sermons by Edward Harris and William Gravet in 1587, the year of Mary Stuart’s execution, and Thomas White’s in 1589, all

in Spenserian allegory and Elizabethan biblical exegesis
Genealogy in biblical exegesis and the Legend of Temperance
Margaret Christian

Church and State: With an Introductory Essay on the Northern Ireland Rebellion [sic, for “Northern Rebellion”], ed. William E.  Collins for Church Historical Society Publications 58 (London, 1899, 1958), 45; Broughton, Our Lordes Famile, sig. D3. 94 94 The preachers’ Bible and Spenser’s Faerie Queene antecedents as well as her grandfather, father, and brother. A catalog of this sort from the second Queen’s Day sermon by Archbishop Sandys traced the family resemblances that defined and described Elizabeth. Israell was well apaide with the good gouernement of Debora

in Spenserian allegory and Elizabethan biblical exegesis
Abstract only
Tom Betteridge

be read as exemplary representations of the Elizabethan regime as a via media between Henrician tyranny and Edwardian anarchy.2 The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. At home the campaign by godly Protestants to purge of the English Church of its residual papist elements continued but made only moderate headway in the face of Elizabeth’s opposition. In 1577 Archbishop Grindal was suspended by Elizabeth for daring to suggest that as a clergyman he answered

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
Richard II, Mary Stuart and the poetics of queenship
Alison Findlay

Doubt of Future Foes’ was written c. 1570, in the wake of the Northern rebellion and probably during the trial of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. 17 It is an expression of panoptic queenly power. The Queen, fearing that her Catholic ‘subjects faith doth ebb’, claims foreknowledge of ‘future foes’. 18 Like Richard’s royal sun in Richard II , Elizabeth is able to dart

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories