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Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

Events in China in the early twenty-first century
Maurice Roche

2008 Olympic Games and the Shanghai 2010 Expo and their legacies in China’s contemporary development, both at the national level and also particularly at the urban level. By contrast in Chapter 8 later we look West and explore the implications of the glocalisation dynamic for mega-events in the case of the city of London. We discuss the influence of megaevents on the development of London as a world city, and we look in particular at the London 2012 Olympic Games and its urban legacies. In addition in each of these chapters we also look again at the issues raised in

in Mega-events and social change
Stadia, urban planning and the 1924 Olympics
Robert W. Lewis

15 1 A ‘grand stade’ for Paris: stadia, urban planning and the 1924 Olympics In March 1922, the Paris municipal council debated a measure to grant a ten-​million franc subsidy for the construction of a new 100,000-​seat stadium in the south-​west corner of Paris, destined to serve as the principal site for the upcoming 1924 Olympic Games. The advocates of the project, notably the members of the French Olympic Committee (Comité Olympique Français, or COF) and their allies on the municipal council, argued that a monumental grand stade would boost the prestige of

in The stadium century
Olympics and legacies
Maurice Roche

and in the following chapter, where the schema is explained in more detail. In these terms most of Essex and Chalkley’s stages (1, 2 and 3) can be seen as details of what I refer to as the primary phase; and their stage 4 (1960–96) is split between my primary and secondary phases, with most of the events covered being in what I refer to as the secondary phase. This periodisation 152 Mega-events, legacy and urban change provides a framework for the discussion in this chapter. In the first section we begin by looking at the focus from early Olympic Games onwards

in Mega-events and social change
Staging spectacles in changing cities
Maurice Roche

modernity’ (Roche 2000, ch. 5) I suggested that a mega-event’s main site should be seen as analogous both to a theatre and also to a touristic theme park, albeit a temporary version of each. The ‘theme park’ analogy is particularly relevant for the main site of a World Expo, which, in the largest category of Expo, typically contains many differently designed pavilions representing the participating nations. And it is relevant also for understanding the main site of an Olympic Games, with its large-scale Olympic stadium and the various functional buildings and venues, such

in Mega-events and social change
Piracy and symbiosis in the cultural industries
Maurice Roche

. The third stage is concerned with problems of internet piracy in the field of media sport and the related field of major sport events like the Olympic Games and also high-profile and high-value football matches. It looks at efforts to contest internet piracy in the main codes of football, namely in American football (particularly in relation to the annual Super Bowl game) and in soccer (particularly the competitions organised by the English Premier League). This section also considers the problem of internet piracy in the context of the Olympic Games, and ‘hard’ and

in Mega-events and social change
Vanessa Heggie

the rare (but increasing) number of specialty medical sites such as the operating theatres of knee surgeons or the Footballers’ Hospital. What is perhaps the most distinctive feature of sports medicine at this time is its policing activity; how doctors were able to declare some bodies unfit for some sports – in addition to the ‘common sense’ decision that women should be excluded from vigorous exercise. In the first decade of the twentieth century this was expressed at the highest competitive levels through the introduction of screening at the Olympic Games. In

in A history of British sports medicine
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The United States, the two Chinas and the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Olympics
Rachel Vaughan

National Olympic Committee (NOC) 1928–53 and president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) 1952–72 – for one, was a dedicated advocate of the absolute separation of the sporting and political realms. Ultimately such a position was untenable: the Olympic Games, in contrast to Pierre de Coubertin’s late ROFE___9781526131058_Print.indd 185 11/06/2018 09:15 186 ‘No sport’ as diplomacy nineteenth century concept, became inextricably linked with aspects of sovereignty and nationalism as a result of being based on national teams, with the associated trappings of

in Sport and diplomacy
The Barcelona model
Duncan Wheeler

In the manner of the proverbial hare and tortoise, Barcelona was slow to harness the potential of the post-Franco explosion of creativity, but eventually overtook Madrid in the race to become the cultural capital of Spain. The catalyst for this transformation was hosting the Olympic Games, which, initially at least, appeared to constitute a more sustainable cultural revolution than the Movida for four interrelated reasons: (1) the understanding of heroin addiction as a social problem rather than collateral damage; (2) a greater collaboration

in Following Franco
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David Arter

states as ‘norm entrepreneurs’ (see chapter 13) – that is, the purveyors of such fundamental values as justice, equality and human rights – was implicitly questioned by the decision of prime minister Matti Vanhanen to attend the opening cere­ mony of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. Vanhanen was criticised for not following the example of the German chancellor and British prime minister, who are boycotting the Games in protest over alleged human rights abuses in Tibet. In fact, all the Nordic prime ministers were planning to attend. Of much deeper concern to most

in Scandinavian politics today