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The CPGB’s ‘anti-revisionists’ in the 1960s and 1970s
Lawrence Parker

5 Opposition in slow motion The CPGB’s ‘anti-revisionists’ in the 1960s and 1970s Lawrence Parker In common with other national parties in the world ‘official’ communist movement, the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) gave birth to pro-Chinese and pro-Soviet inner-party oppositional groupings in the 1960s and 1970s. While there were important structural impediments to the growth of such oppositions,1 this article focuses particularly on the ideological problems associated with these trends and thus maps out a thesis as to why such groups proved to be a

in Against the grain
Jonathan Atkin

1 ‘Recognised’ forms of opposition Opposition to the Great War took many forms. This was perhaps not surprising, given its scale. It was a unique occasion for Great Britain. Never before had the whole, industrialised nation been mobilised for war on this scale. In medieval times, men who worked on the land had, in times of threat, left their harvests and gone to war as part of the agreement between landowner and serf. Much later, with the establishment of a regular army and navy, there was little need of binding agreements. As often as not, men joined up out of

in A war of individuals
The anti-Marketeers

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the opponents of Britain's first attempt to join the European Economic Community (EEC) between the announcement of Harold Macmillan's new policy initiative in July 1961 and General de Gaulle's veto of Britain's application for membership in January 1963. In particular, it examines the role of national identity in shaping both the formulation and articulation of arguments put forward by these opponents of Britain's policy. To date, studies of Britain's unsuccessful bid for entry have focused on high political analysis of diplomacy and policy formulation. In most accounts, only passing reference is made to domestic opposition. This book redresses the balance, providing a complete depiction of the opposition movement and a distinctive approach that proceeds from a ‘low-political’ viewpoint. As such, it emphasizes protest and populism of the kind exercised by, among others, Fleet Street crusaders at the Daily Express, pressure groups such as the Anti-Common Market League and Forward Britain Movement, expert pundits like A.J.P. Taylor, Sir Arthur Bryant and William Pickles, as well as constituency activists, independent parliamentary candidates, pamphleteers, letter writers and maverick MPs. In its consideration of a group largely overlooked in previous accounts, the book provides essential insights into the intellectual, structural, populist and nationalist dimensions of early Euroscepticism.

A comparative analysis
Stuart Ball

1 Stuart Ball The Conservatives in opposition, 1906–79 The Conservatives in opposition, 1906–79: a comparative analysis Stuart Ball The experience of being in opposition for a lengthy period is not one which the modern Conservative Party is used to, and it has tended to find it difficult. Since the 1880s, the Conservatives have grown accustomed to being seen – and to see themselves – as the party of government. They have been in office for so much of the period that exercising power has seemed to be the natural state of affairs, and this adds to Conservative

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Mike Huggins

4 Declining opposition to betting on racing hen Mass Observation studied Bolton in 1938 it noticed a number of ‘major oppositions’ which cut across the life of the community, separating married couples and families – issues about which persons apparently alike with respect to income, age, appearance or knowledge might violently differ or feel resentment. One was the drinking of alcohol. Another was betting.1 They were defined as part of dominant popular culture or as part of oppositional culture, depending on one’s social identity. Betting was an intensely

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Paul Kennedy

7 The PSOE in opposition, 1996–2004 Sweet defeat turns bitter: the PSOE 1996–2000 The refusal of the Catalan nationalist Convergència i Unió to support the government’s budget for 1996 left González with no option other than to bring forward the date of the general election to March 1996. The PSOE entered the general election campaign in poor shape. The second half of 1995 had been dominated by the revelation that the Security Service, CESID, had spent the last decade listening into and recording the telephone conversations of prominent politicians, business

in The Spanish Socialist Party and the modernisation of Spain
Mark Pitchford

1 The shock of opposition, 1945–51 A right response to defeat? The Conservative Party entered the 1945 General Election suspicious of its leaders and split over social policy. The direction of Party policy was uncertain, with the Tory Reform Group, Progress Trust, Imperial Group, and numerous smaller bodies fighting for predominance in a party with a moribund and bankrupt machine. The progressive Tory Reform Committee had already welcomed publication of the Beveridge Report advocating extensive social reform, but right-wing Conservatives had attacked it

in The Conservative Party and the extreme right 1945–75
Aaron Edwards

process can neither be swift nor easy. It will never come if a beginning is never made. Only a strong, constructive, constitutional Labour opposition can make that beginning. The electors must choose between Ulster’s past and Ulster’s future. 2 The Northern Ireland Labour Party fights this election in association with the British Labour Party: our candidates support and share British Labour’s high ideals and practical policies. And Northern Ireland Labour believes deeply, as does the British Labour Party, in the fundamental rights of human beings without regard to the

in A history of the Northern Ireland Labour Party