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Government, Authority and Control, 1830–1940

From the Victorian period to the present, images of the policeman have played a prominent role in the literature of empire, shaping popular perceptions of colonial policing. This book covers and compares the different ways and means that were employed in policing policies from 1830 to 1940. Countries covered range from Ireland, Australia, Africa and India to New Zealand and the Caribbean. As patterns of authority, of accountability and of consent, control and coercion evolved in each colony the general trend was towards a greater concentration of police time upon crime. The most important aspect of imperial linkage in colonial policing was the movement of personnel from one colony to another. To evaluate the precise role of the 'Irish model' in colonial police forces is at present probably beyond the powers of any one scholar. Policing in Queensland played a vital role in the construction of the colonial social order. In 1886 the constabulary was split by legislation into the New Zealand Police Force and the standing army or Permanent Militia. The nature of the British influence in the Klondike gold rush may be seen both in the policy of the government and in the actions of the men sent to enforce it. The book also overviews the role of policing in guarding the Gold Coast, police support in 1954 Sudan, Orange River Colony, Colonial Mombasa and Kenya, as well as and nineteenth-century rural India.

The South African Constabulary in the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, 1900-08
Albert Grundlingh

farming property in partnerships. 7 With the cessation of hostilities the SAC retained much of its semimilitary character. Units were pushed out and scattered over the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony to replace army personnel who had been withdrawn. A network of police posts and patrols was established, to ensure that the farms in each district could be visited on a regular

in Policing the empire
The discourse of modernization in the concentration camps of the South African War, 1899–1902
Elizabeth van Heyningen

her report led to questions in the House of Commons. In response, the WO appointed a Ladies Committee to investigate the camps 7 and, in November 1901, the WO also published the Reports etc. on the Working of the Refugee Camps in the Transvaal, Orange River Colony, Cape Colony and Natal , the first of a series of Blue Books that consisted of correspondence and reports. 8 By this time both

in Rhetorics of empire
Relief, reconstruction and disputes over civilian suffering in the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902
Rebecca Gill

into the newly annexed Transvaal and Orange Free State (now the Orange River Colony), the Rowntrees restricted themselves to the Cape Colony and Natal, where they concentrated their investigation on the camps at Pietermaritzburg and Port Elizabeth, the latter of which had seen a reduction of internees during the Rowntrees’ stay. Finding that the funds to aid English refugees

in Calculating compassion
Open Access (free)
Saving the White voters from being ‘utterly swamped’
Julie Evans
Patricia Grimshaw
David Philips
, and
Shurlee Swain

-point in those negotiations was the issue of political rights for Africans in the former Boer republics, the new British colonies of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony. The Boer negotiators flatly refused to accept a Black franchise as part of the peace deal. To get a peace, Milner sacrificed African political rights. The war was ended by the Treaty of Vereeniging, in May 1902, Article 8 of which read

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
John M. MacKenzie
Nigel R. Dalziel

society’s hall was diverted, and shops on the ground floor could no longer be let. The property depreciated so rapidly that its liabilities soon far exceeded its assets. 22 The significant number of Scots in the Orange River Colony (later the Free State once again), the Transvaal and Natal is well attested by the manner in which Caledonian Societies spread to relatively small centres such as Kroonstad

in The Scots in South Africa
The South African War, 1899–1902
Edward M. Spiers

the branch line from Johannesburg to Klerksdorp was opened. Girouard also supported Roberts with several large-scale troop movements to counter the guerrilla operations in the Free State, renamed as the Orange River Colony (ORC), and beyond. In a five-day period during July 1900, thirty-one trains conveyed Lord Methuen’s mounted force by rail from Kroonstad to Krugersdorp (while sustaining three supply trains per day from

in Engines for empire
Heloise Brown

’ by Fawcett; and a nurse, Katherine Brereton. Fawcett, 14 August 1901, diary, p. 40; Roberts, Those Bloody Women, pp. 183–5. 31 Millicent Garrett Fawcett, 20 July 1901, diary, pp. 4–5. Emphasis in original. 32 Caine, Victorian Feminists, pp. 199, 231–3. 33 St John Brodrick in The Times (25 May 1901), in Roberts, Those Bloody Women, p. 166. 34 Millicent Garrett Fawcett (President), Report on the concentration camps in South Africa, by the Committee of Ladies appointed by the Secretary of State for War; containing reports on the camps in Natal, the Orange River Colony

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
Abstract only
Not just a ‘teatime war’
Donal Lowry

as a ‘Magnanimous Gesture’, Britain in 1906–07 restored self-government to the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony. 7 The issue of Indian immigration and the outbreak of the Zulu or Bambatha Rebellion in 1906 fostered a greater sense of common interest among the formerly warring ‘white races’, while African solidarity was encouraged by the ruthless suppression of the

in The South African War reappraised
Kent Fedorowich

Stratchey, 13 October 1901 and 16 June 1902; L. S. Amery Papers, Box C.25, Milner to Amery, 26 January 1903; Buchan to Amery, 6 April 1903; Milner to Amery, 20 May 1903. Although the land settlement experiment was a failure, settlers in the Orange River Colony had been more successful than their counterparts in the Transvaal. Colin Murray, Black Mountain: Land, Class and Power in the

in Unfit for heroes