The case of the New Zealand Native Land Purchase Ordinance of 1846
John C. Weaver
they could not grant the graziers security of tenure.
Governments and squatters on several colonial
frontiers conducted their disputes by marshalling European
artifacts: contracts, the common law, and statutes. 4 Many
indigenous peoples later discovered ‘the portentous
significance of pieces of paper’. 5 Governments could initiate
ordinances and statutes, and administer their
Empire, pp. 141–4.
31 TNA, CO91/422, Biddulph to Chamberlain, 8 Sept 1899, Colonial Oﬃce to India
Oﬃce, 19 Sept 1899; CO91/423, India Oﬃce to Colonial Oﬃce, 5 Oct and 28
Nov 1899, and minutes and despatches; GGA, Consolidated Laws, 1913, vol. II, p.
40, Rules 3 and 4; and ‘Register of Permits issued to British Subjects to reside in
Gibraltar under Rule 3’.
M1710 - CONSTANTINE TEXT.indd 242
Demography and the alien
Statutory aliens, British Indians and the Alien Traders Ordinances,
1920s to 1950s
Because of overcrowding and accommodation
of his reign, Edward II had to behave in ways similar to
his thirteenth-century forebears and accept statutes and ordinances
aimed at constraining and defining his royal authority. Such constraints
were imposed almost from the off and were supported by rebukes and
threats, sometimes presented in the guise of considered advice.
Not everything that Edward II
inherited from his father displays the same
This book presents key texts relating to the political as well as to the broader socio-economic history of the reign of Edward II. Drawing on a wide range of narrative sources, especially the extensive chronicle accounts of the reign, the editors also introduce other important material, including parliamentary rolls, charters, court records and accounts. Together this gathering of sources allows the reader to navigate this troubled and eventful period in English medieval history. The volume is organised chronologically, guiding the reader from the moment of Edward II’s accession in 1307 until his removal from office in 1327 and his supposed death in the same year. The editors also introduce more thematic chapters throughout, addressing such key themes as royal finances and the state of the early fourteenth-century economy, the role of parliament, and political and military engagement with Scotland. In an introductory essay, the editors discuss previous historical work directed at the reign of Edward II and also outline the range of source types available to the historian of the reign. Each section of primary source is also introduced by the editors, who offer a contextual analysis in each instance.
in the perils of inconstancy in
Lancaster’s death [ 36b , re. 1322], failures of judgement,
leadership and moral rectitude, set out with élan by commentators
during Thomas’s life [ 36b, re. 1319; 39c ], were now
generally overlooked. Instead, pilgrims attended his tomb at Pontefract
as well as the site of his memorial to the Ordinances at St Pauls in
London; at both locations, miracles were
historical and cultural context. 5 The prime focus and apparent motivation for writing
An Outlaw’s Song is the Ordinance of Trailbaston of
1305 and the set of general oyer and terminer commissions issued in its
wake. 6 The
poem has therefore a specific historical location, and indeed the
justices mentioned, Martin, Knoville, Spigurnel and Belflour, were
to the jurisdiction of the guild in disputes involving
townspeople hint at an authority which emerges more explicitly in later
ordinances of 1486. These show the master of the guild, together with a
body called ‘the forty-eight’, effectivedly regulating
local affairs, for all the world as though the guild of St Mary were the
legitimate town council of Lichfield. In law, authority remained with
find any similar infraction. To be sure, prostitution was severely
reprimanded, and very broad police ordinances could punish certain forms of what was called “shamelessness.”
Cultural historians who have delved into the appearance of new
rules aimed at protecting modesty have found, starting at the end
of the sixteenth century, some police measures that forbade for
the first time certain public behaviors that were allowed until then.
However, such measures, which can be identified as relating to
modesty, targeted isolated situations and very specific behaviors.
the country. At the same time,
all were placed under police surveillance.’ Meanwhile, on 12
August, ‘the exemption enjoyed by Germans and Austrians under the
Arms Act was cancelled and their disarmament was ordered’, 48 meaning
that they had to surrender any items held under licence. 49
On 20 August, there followed the key piece of wartime
alien legislation in the form of the Foreigners Ordinance. Most