This collection of lively biographical essays examines historical and contemporary Pan-Africanism as an ideology of emancipation and unity. The volume covers thirty-six major figures, including well-known Pan-Africanists such as W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Amy Ashwood Garvey, C.L.R. James, George Padmore, Kwame Nkrumah, Frantz Fanon, Steve Biko, and Thabo Mbeki, as well as popular figures not typically identified with mainstream Pan-Africanism such as Maya Angelou, Mariama Bâ, Buchi Emecheta, Miriam Makeba, Ruth First, Wangari Maathai, Wole Soyinka, Derek Walcott, V.Y. Mudimbe, Léopold Senghor, Malcolm X, Bob Marley, and Fela Anikulapo-Kuti. The book explores the history and pioneers of the movement; the quest for reparations; politicians; poets; activists; as well as Pan-Africanism in the social sciences, philosophy, literature, and its musical activists. With contributions from a diverse and prominent group of African, Caribbean, and African-American scholars, The Pan-African Pantheon is a comprehensive and diverse introductory reader for specialists and general readers alike.
From the Twin Plagues of European Locusts to Africa’s Triple Quest for Emancipation
J.F. A DE A JAYI , N IGERIAN HISTORIAN
“S EEK YE FIRST THE POLITICAL KINGDOM , and all other things will be added unto it.” The famous biblical injunction of Kwame Nkrumah, founding Ghanaian president and Pan-African prophet, of the 1950s continues to reverberate across Africa and its diaspora in the Caribbean and the Americas 2 seven decades after it was first uttered. Having achieved Nkrumah’s political kingdom by 1994 with the liberation of South Africa, Africa and its diaspora found, however
The starting point for understanding norm creation within African regional institutions must be the norms created by the OAU in 1963. However, to analyze the decisions made by independence era leaders when choosing norms for the African regional organization, it is crucial to understand the impact of pan-Africanist ideas that developed throughout the twentieth century as well as the impact of key events that took place in the lead-up to independence. Pan-Africanism did not begin as an African-led movement. It began to emerge as a solidified concept in 1900, and
T HIS ESSAY PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW of George Padmore’s contributions to the development of Pan-Africanism as an intellectual tradition and political movement. Padmore, who was born in Trinidad and Tobago at the turn of the twentieth century, does not enjoy the same levels of popular recognition as W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey and Kwame Nkrumah (see Morris, Grant, and Biney in this volume). And yet he was seminal in Pan-Africanism’s evolution, and his impact on the movement continues to be felt to this day
The introduction sets out the ways in which the volume uses an engagement with the inspiring international reverberations of the Russian Revolution across the Black Atlantic world to understand the contested articulations of left politics and different struggles against racism and colonialism. The first section situates the volume in relation to the historiography of the Russian Revolution while outlining some of the key ways in which black radicals drew inspiration from these events. The second section positions the volume in relation to recent literatures on black internationalism, drawing attention to how the chapters in this volume take forward these debates. The final section draws attention to the implications of the book for key contemporary debates on the intersection of race and class, on the emergence of politicised forms of anti-racism, in particular those arising out of a revolutionary struggle, and on racialised forms of internationalism and agency. We conclude by positioning the introduction in relation to recent political events, including the resurgent Black Lives Matter movement.
-six years after writing “Nkrumah: The Leninist Czar”, Ali Mazrui delivered the Aggrey-Fraser-Guggisberg memorial lecture at the University of Ghana, Legon, in March 2002. The address was titled “Nkrumah’s Legacy and Africa’s Triple Heritage: The Shadows of Globalization and Counter Terrorism”. In it, Mazrui reinforced his previous indictment of Nkrumah, declaring, “By a strange twist of destiny, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana was both the hero, who carried the torch of Pan-Africanism, and the villain who started the whole legacy of the one-party state in Africa”. 12 Furthermore
latter role better than the Ghanaian-British philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah, whose insights into Pan-Africanism are evocatively articulated in his monograph, In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture (1992), 1 in which he bears witness to the genealogy of, and the discourse regarding, Pan-Africanism. In his book, Appiah opens up a particularly local dialogue and narrative by engaging with African cultures and identities through a discussion of universal concerns about human associations. He simultaneously contends with a grand question germane to
A Felasophy of Kalakuta Republic and African Citizenship
’s grandfather Josiah Ransome-Kuti was a musician who had recorded in the London studio of EMI early in the twentieth century. By the turn of the century, he had teamed up with other choirmasters to start rejecting the domination of Yoruba Christian hymns by European compositional principles, and replacing them with a much more African texture of composition, progression and even melody. Fela’s father, Israel Ransome-Kuti, was also an accomplished musician, aside from being an educationist and clergyman. Fela's mother was an activist who was part of the global Pan-African
From troubled pan-African media to sprawling Nollywood
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe
These diametrically opposed meta-narratives, while both open to criticism, have nonetheless continued to shape debates on the image of Africa in international news. Beyond that, they have played a critical role in ideologically shaping several pan-African media initiatives primarily aimed at contesting and redefining international news narratives on and about the continent. Using pan-African(ist) media initiatives, including Pan-African News Agency (PANA), SABC Africa, and South Africa’s Multichoice Limited as illustrative and
Pan-Africanism, but he also had an influence on Pan-Africanism in the Caribbean. Jamaican scholar Horace Campbell described him as an outstanding “scholar-activist in the tradition of W.E.B. Dubois, C.L.R. James, Marcus Garvey, or George Padmore” (see Morris, Cudjoe, Grant and Duggan in this volume) and as one of the Caribbean’s most significant contributors to Pan-Africanism. 25 Similarly, Jamaican scholar Robert A. Hill described Rodney as:
a Pan-African thinker and political activist in the fullest sense [who] stands out as a unique