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Lessons Learned from an Intervention by Médecins Sans Frontières
Maria Ximena Di Lollo, Elena Estrada Cocina, Francisco De Bartolome Gisbert, Raquel González Juarez, and Ana Garcia Mingo

Introduction The disease caused by a hitherto unknown coronavirus, and denoted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was designated a pandemic on 11 March 2020 ( World Health Organization, 2020a ). The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Spain on 31 January 2020, and as of August 2021 there have been more than 4,500,000 cases and over 80,000 COVID-19 deaths in the country. Given the novelty of the virus, there was a lack of basic information about the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg

10 Pandemic flus and vaccination policies in Sweden Britta Lundgren and Martin Holmberg Introduction During the summer of 2010, unexpected reports of narcolepsy in Swedish children and adolescents after vaccination with the pandemic influenza vaccine Pandemrix came to the attention of the Medical Products Agency (MPA). The main features of this condition are

in The politics of vaccination
A crisis of comprehension
Terence Ranger

The influenza pandemic of 1918 is no subject for a triumphalist medical history. No effective treatment was available at the time, and the influenza viruses still defy medical science. 1 Hence those historians of empire who have published work on the pandemic have not discussed diagnosis or cure but focused rather on its demographic consequences, 2 or

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
Hannah Mawdsley

be celebrating with abandon. At that point in time, their country remained free of the deadly influenza pandemic that was ravaging the rest of the globe. The Armistice had proven to be a double-edged sword for many other countries. Even as the conflict of the First World War ceased, the celebration of the Armistice peace was juxtaposed with the ongoing battle against the flu. In many belligerent countries, the most virulent wave of the virus coincided with – and was undoubtedly aided by – the Armistice celebrations. In Auckland, New Zealand, for

in Exiting war
Collecting and curating the history of HIV/AIDS
Manon S. Parry and

of cultural activities for the general public, highlighting the range of AIDS-related work that had been undertaken since the emergence of the pandemic. As an historian of medicine and former museum curator with a long-standing interest in the topic, I undertook several projects to explore the public history of HIV/AIDS, including a pop-up exhibition at the IAS conference, a short film about the early years of the crisis in

in Histories of HIV/AIDS in Western Europe
Governing COVID dead in southern Arizona
Robin C. Reineke

Research into the governance of dead bodies, primarily focused on post-conflict contexts, has often focused on the aspects of the management of dead bodies that involve routinisation, bureaucratisation and order. Less attention has been paid to the governance of the dead in times of relative peace and, in particular, to the aspects of such work that are less bureaucratised and controlled. This article explores the governance of dead bodies in pandemic times – times which although extraordinary, put stress on ordinary systems in ways that are revealing of power and politics. Observations for this article come from over fifteen years of ethnographic research at a medical examiner’s office in Arizona, along with ten focused interviews in 2020 with medico-legal authorities and funeral directors specifically about the COVID-19 pandemic. The author argues that the pandemic revealed the ways in which the deathcare industry in the United States is an unregulated, decentralised and ambiguous space.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
The handling of the deceased during the COVID-19 pandemic, a case study in France and Switzerland
Gaëlle Clavandier, Marc-Antoine Berthod, Philippe Charrier, Martin Julier-Costes, and Veronica Pagnamenta

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about an unprecedented global crisis. To limit the spread of the virus and the associated excess mortality, states and governing bodies have produced a series of regulations and recommendations from a health perspective. The funerary aspects of these directives have reconfigured not only the ways in which the process of dying can be accompanied, but also the management of dead bodies, impacting on the dying, their relatives and professionals in the sector. Since March 2020, the entire process of separation and farewell has been affected, giving rise to public debates about funeral restrictions and the implications for mourning. We carried out a study in France and Switzerland to measure the effects of this crisis, and in particular to explore whether it has involved a shift from a funerary approach to a strictly mortuary one. Have the practices that would normally be observed in non-pandemic times been irrevocably altered? Does this extend to all deaths? Has there been a switch to an exclusively technical handling? Are burial practices still respected? The results of the present study pertain to the ‘first wave’ of spring 2020 and focus on the practices of professionals working in the funeral sector.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Lachlan McIver, Maria Guevara, and Gabriel Alcoba

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed multiple fault lines in the performances of health services at every level – from community to national to global – in ensuring universal, equitable access to preventive and curative care. Tragically, this has been to the detriment of those who have suffered and died not only from COVID-19, but also from the myriad other ailments affecting people around the world. Of those, we wish to highlight here some key categories of diseases that have caused a greater

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

disability and vice versa. 7 Neglect of underlying social and economic determinants reduces all healthcare service impact. The interconnection has become painfully apparent during the current COVID-19 pandemic, with the novel coronavirus compounding and complicating the disease burden among the poor. For example, UK research revealed that people with hypertension, diabetes and obesity are at higher risk of poor virus outcomes ( The Health Foundation, 2020 ; Public Health England, 2020

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Debates Surrounding Ebola Vaccine Trials in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
Myfanwy James, Joseph Grace Kasereka, and Shelley Lees

five-month suspension caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We established a social science team which worked in collaboration with the trial to explore local experiences of the trial. The aim was to produce academic research that could help inform the intervention, while also providing critique and maintaining academic independence. This required a delicate balance: the social science study remained distinct from the community engagement activities of the trial

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs