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Christian dualism originated in the reign of Constans II (641-68). It was a popular religion, which shared with orthodoxy an acceptance of scriptual authority and apostolic tradition and held a sacramental doctrine of salvation, but understood all these in a radically different way to the Orthodox Church. One of the differences was the strong part demonology played in the belief system. This text traces, through original sources, the origins of dualist Christianity throughout the Byzantine Empire, focusing on the Paulician movement in Armenia and Bogomilism in Bulgaria. It presents not only the theological texts, but puts the movements into their social and political context.

Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

, was extraneous to this creation, but, having become aware of the plight of men living here, sent his Son Jesus Christ to rescue them. 8 Marcion founded an episcopal church which may have survived in Asia Minor into the seventh century, 9 but there is no evidence that it influenced the Christian dualists. Indeed, the differences between Marcionism and later dualist movements like Paulicianism and

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
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Janet Hamilton, Bernard Hamilton, and Yuri Stoyanov

Constantine V continued the campaigns of his father Leo against the Arabs.The transfers of populations recorded here followed the capture and destruction of Theodosiopolis and Melitene. 1 It is sometimes argued that the emperor’s motive in moving Armenians and Paulicians to Thrace was an attempt to encourage Iconoclasm (which the emperor supported) in the areas near the

in Christian dualist heresies in the Byzantine world c. 650–c. 1450
Open Access (free)
The gendering of witchcraft
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

, infanticide and cannibalism gradually took on a new meaning, as so many manifestations of a religious cult of Satan, so many expressions of Devil-worship. 9 Montanists, Paulicians, Bogomils, Waldensians, Cathars, and other groups were all believed by Catholic authorities to engage in these practices. 10 When early modern authors described the activities of witches

in Male witches in early modern Europe
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

and the Persecuting Society in the Middle Ages: Essays on the Work of R. I. Moore (Leiden and Boston, 2006), pp. 115–37; J. Bird, ‘The wheat and the tares: Peter the Chanter’s circle and the fama- based inquest against heresy and criminal sins, c.1198–c.1235’, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law , ed. U.-R. Blumenthal, K. Pennington and A.A. Larson (Vatican City, 2008), pp. 763–856. 3 From Publicani, Latin version of Greek name for Paulician heretics

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300