President William J. Clinton
On the 6 July 2003, former President of the United States of America,
William J. (Bill) Clinton offered assembled listeners his insight to guide
them and others making a similar ascent out of conflict, at a time when
the much-lauded Northern Irish peace process was, it seemed, poised
on the precipice of collapse.1 Electoral movement away from the more
moderate parties, the Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP) and
Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), towards the more polarised Sinn Fein (SF)
‘Make war breed peace; make peace stint war.’1 The just war
tradition upholds the primacy of peace over war. War has no
intrinsic or independent value. Its moral worth is of a wholly
instrumental kind and is conditional upon the subordination of
war to peace. War is acceptable only as a form of peacemaking.
Fundamentally, it is not the ius ad bellum that a just war vindicates,
but the ius ad pacem. Peace is the goal and the measure of the just
war from beginning to end. It is war’s essential moral context.
The primacy of peace is evident in the
Edited and introduced by Nobel Laureate John Hume, T.G. Fraser and Leonie Murray, this book provides a range of unique insights into the issues surrounding peacemaking, delivered by major international figures with direct experience in this area at the highest level. Based on a series of lectures on the theme of ‘Peace’ given under the auspices of the Tip O’Neill Chair in Peace Studies at the University of Ulster’s Magee campus and funded by The Ireland Funds, each lecture is presented with an introduction placing it in its proper context within the discourse on peacemaking. The volume makes an invaluable contribution to the study of peace and conflict studies, international history, international relations and international politics.
To what extent was Richard Baxter a congregationalist?
Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic
Polity and peacemaking: to what extent
was Richard Baxter a congregationalist?
n 17 July 1658 Edward Burton wrote a penitent letter to Richard Baxter
in which he regretted ever allowing himself to believe, as he recently
had, that Baxter’s church at Kidderminster was one of those ‘Congregated
Churches in the Independent way’.1 In his reply, written a few days later,
Baxter testily pointed out the absurdity of Burton’s error by listing six distinctive markers of ‘the Separatists and
Few historical problems have received so much attention among those studying the modern period and so little attention among medieval scholars as that of peacemaking. In the medieval period, peace was intrinsically linked to Christianity. As peace was seen as the perfect realisation of the laws of God, peace in the medieval period also became a standard justification for war. This book develops Professor Christopher Holdsworth's ideas and to put these, and other, common themes into a wider context by examining two case studies: peacemaking involving the kings of England and their neighbours in Britain and on the continent; and that involving the kings of Denmark and their neighbours. For England, the investigation looks at the reigns of Henry II and his sons, Richard I and John, encompassing the period between 1154 and 1216. For Denmark, the focus is on the reigns of Valdemar I and his sons, Cnut VI and Valdemar II, thereby covering most of the period between 1157 and 1241. In 1177, the treaty of Winchester satisfied what both kings wanted to achieve at that particular time. At the heart of the medieval peacemaking process stood the face-to-face meeting.
challenges for the new century
Dr Leonie Murray
The pursuance of peace as a philosophy and of peacemaking as an
activity, contrary to the suppositions of those who would call them
‘modern’ preoccupations, has a long and richly textured history.1 Since
the earliest times during which human beings organised themselves into
social groupings there has been violent conflict, to which the 9,100 year
old vestiges of fortress walls around the ancient city of Jericho attest,
and there is no shortage of great minds to tell us of the innately
This book provides a collection of documents in translation which brings together the seminal sources for the late Merovingian Frankish kingdom. The collection of documents in translation includes Liber Historiae Francorum, Vita Domnae Balthidis, Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis, Acta Aunemundi, Passio Leudegarii, Passio Praejecti, and Vita Sanctae Geretrudis and the Additamentum Nivialense de Fuilano. The Liber Historiae Francorum was written while a Merovingian king still ruled over the Franks and by someone geographically very close to the political centre of that realm. Late Merovingian hagiography tends to emphasise miracles which heal and eliminate the maladies of the life, and the Vita Audoini follows the pattern. The Vita Sanctae Geretrudis makes no mention at all of Columbanus and his mission among the Franks, a strange omission if the Irish were all one group. The Passio Praejecti provides information on the relationship between the politics of the locality and the politics of the centre, for a land dispute between Praejectus and Hector, the ruler of Marseilles, was heard at the royal court at Autun at Easter 675. The Passio Leudegarii has an overt peace-making element, although the issue of who was on which side is much clouded by the complexity of the political narrative.
Few historical problems have
received so much attention among those studying the modern period and so
little attention among medieval scholars as that of peacemaking. 1 Searching the shelves of
any university library, it is immediately apparent that the topic of
peacemaking has been approached from many angles in the modern period,
so that, for instance, the 1919 conference of Paris intended to
So far, we have surveyed the
mechanism and principles which underlay medieval peacemaking. To
conclude, it may be useful to ask how successful were the attempts
to bring about peace which were made in this period. If we believe
that peacemaking refers only to those treaties concluded in the
aftermath of hostilities and that peace simply meant an absence of
firmly established his credentials to speak on the topic
of peacemaking, as did his subsequent contribution to the St Andrews
Agreement of 13 October 2006.
If the Northern Ireland peace process owed much to his persistence
and skill as a negotiator, so, too, did the fortunes of the European Union
during his period of responsibility. Three critical issues engaged his
Presidency. The Union was in the process of being expanded in a way
that the statespersons who assembled at Messina in June 1955 could