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William J. Clinton

3 Peacemaking President William J. Clinton Introduction On the 6 July 2003, former President of the United States of America, William J. (Bill) Clinton offered assembled listeners his insight to guide them and others making a similar ascent out of conflict, at a time when the much-lauded Northern Irish peace process was, it seemed, poised on the precipice of collapse.1 Electoral movement away from the more moderate parties, the Social Democratic Labour Party (SDLP) and Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), towards the more polarised Sinn Fein (SF) and Democratic

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Principles and practice
Author: Jenny Benham

Few historical problems have received so much attention among those studying the modern period and so little attention among medieval scholars as that of peacemaking. In the medieval period, peace was intrinsically linked to Christianity. As peace was seen as the perfect realisation of the laws of God, peace in the medieval period also became a standard justification for war. This book develops Professor Christopher Holdsworth's ideas and to put these, and other, common themes into a wider context by examining two case studies: peacemaking involving the kings of England and their neighbours in Britain and on the continent; and that involving the kings of Denmark and their neighbours. For England, the investigation looks at the reigns of Henry II and his sons, Richard I and John, encompassing the period between 1154 and 1216. For Denmark, the focus is on the reigns of Valdemar I and his sons, Cnut VI and Valdemar II, thereby covering most of the period between 1157 and 1241. In 1177, the treaty of Winchester satisfied what both kings wanted to achieve at that particular time. At the heart of the medieval peacemaking process stood the face-to-face meeting.

Edited and introduced by Nobel Laureate John Hume, T.G. Fraser and Leonie Murray, this book provides a range of unique insights into the issues surrounding peacemaking, delivered by major international figures with direct experience in this area at the highest level. Based on a series of lectures on the theme of ‘Peace’ given under the auspices of the Tip O’Neill Chair in Peace Studies at the University of Ulster’s Magee campus and funded by The Ireland Funds, each lecture is presented with an introduction placing it in its proper context within the discourse on peacemaking. The volume makes an invaluable contribution to the study of peace and conflict studies, international history, international relations and international politics.

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A. J. Coates

11 Peacemaking ‘Make war breed peace; make peace stint war.’1 The just war tradition upholds the primacy of peace over war. War has no intrinsic or independent value. Its moral worth is of a wholly instrumental kind and is conditional upon the subordination of war to peace. War is acceptable only as a form of peacemaking. Fundamentally, it is not the ius ad bellum that a just war vindicates, but the ius ad pacem. Peace is the goal and the measure of the just war from beginning to end. It is war’s essential moral context. The primacy of peace is evident in the

in The ethics of war
Leonie Murray

1 Peacemaking – challenges for the new century Dr Leonie Murray Introduction The pursuance of peace as a philosophy and of peacemaking as an activity, contrary to the suppositions of those who would call them ‘modern’ preoccupations, has a long and richly textured history.1 Since the earliest times during which human beings organised themselves into social groupings there has been violent conflict, to which the 9,100 year old vestiges of fortress walls around the ancient city of Jericho attest, and there is no shortage of great minds to tell us of the innately

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
To what extent was Richard Baxter a congregationalist?
Tim Cooper

Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic Chapter 10 Polity and peacemaking: to what extent was Richard Baxter a congregationalist? Tim Cooper O n 17 July 1658 Edward Burton wrote a penitent letter to Richard Baxter in which he regretted ever allowing himself to believe, as he recently had, that Baxter’s church at Kidderminster was one of those ‘Congregated Churches in the Independent way’.1 In his reply, written a few days later, Baxter testily pointed out the absurdity of Burton’s error by listing six distinctive markers of ‘the Separatists and

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
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Jenny Benham

Few historical problems have received so much attention among those studying the modern period and so little attention among medieval scholars as that of peacemaking. 1 Searching the shelves of any university library, it is immediately apparent that the topic of peacemaking has been approached from many angles in the modern period, so that, for instance, the 1919 conference of Paris intended to

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Abstract only
Jenny Benham

So far, we have surveyed the mechanism and principles which underlay medieval peacemaking. To conclude, it may be useful to ask how successful were the attempts to bring about peace which were made in this period. If we believe that peacemaking refers only to those treaties concluded in the aftermath of hostilities and that peace simply meant an absence of

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Abstract only
Jenny Benham

oath was simply not preserved. We do know, however, that the practice of recording and preserving the oath(s), either separate to or within the terms of a treaty, was widespread in Italy, which may explain why a separate oath was recorded on this occasion. 2 The oath of 1190 reveals a common practice in peacemaking of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, namely that

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages
Jenny Benham

. Peacemaking following Conflicts where one side had either been conquered or had submitted voluntarily often included the giving of hostages to the superior party and tended to go hand in hand with other familiar acts of submission such as the giving of tribute or appearing before the superior ruler with bare feet. 23 To early medieval writers, the willingness to give or

in Peacemaking in the Middle Ages