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José Luís Fiori

the State Department, together with the Pentagon, the CIA and other security and intelligence organs of the US government, as well as the Department of Commerce and the Department of the Treasury. To grasp its importance, it is necessary to distinguish it from the eccentric and unpredictable character of Donald Trump. But it is also necessary to recognise that it would take a character like Trump to bring about such a break from the history and tradition of US foreign policy. From a strictly academic perspective, the new strategy document looks

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

its advisors, thirty is the threshold at which negative reports begin to appear in the press ( Weizmann, 2010 ). Another example is modern flamethrowers, which were first used by Germany in 1915 and became widespread thereafter; in the 1970s, they came to symbolise the brutality of the Vietnam War. The famous photograph of the burned little girl fleeing a napalm attack aroused general indignation, especially in the United States, and impelled the Pentagon to ban

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The challenge of Eurasian security governance

Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.

Emma Louise Briant

-terrorism Clinton’s directive did not of course predict the events of 9/11, and, with further evolutions of the structure, this issue of strategic level inadequacies has returned time and again. Bradley Graham, Rumsfeld’s biographer, spoke of an effort . . . by Rumsfeld and Feith to draft an interagency strategic plan for the War on Terrorism and they kept groping all the way through 2002, 3, 4, 5 and 6 to try to get a document or . . . blueprint for . . . the larger war and the Pentagon took the lead in that, largely because they didn’t see anyone else doing it. And there are

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
August to October 2020
Rhys Crilley

two other defence spending controversies. In September 2020, journalists at the Washington Post reported that $1 billion in emergency funding that had been given to the Pentagon to ‘prevent, prepare for, and respond to coronavirus’ had ‘instead been mostly funnelled to defense contractors and used to make things such as jet engine parts, body armor and dress uniforms’ (Gregg and Torbati 2020 ). This ‘money meant for face masks’ was given to defence contractors who spent it on ‘projects that [had] little to do with the coronavirus response’ and was justified by

in Unparalleled catastrophe
Stephen Benedict Dyson

. The secretary was insistent, questioning and effective in shaping a plan that married Franks’ war-fighting expertise with the goals of the civilian Pentagon leadership. Instead of crumpling before Rumsfeld or ignoring him, Franks took the secretary’s incessant questioning as a positive cue, and together they fashioned an effective product. The positive impact of Rumsfeld on the invasion plan serves as

in Leaders in conflict
From Truman to Eisenhower (1948– 53)
Joseph Heller

United States as their principal enemy. Soviet anti-Semitism reinforced opposition in principle to the establishment of a Jewish state. 2 The CIA and the Pentagon were concerned that the United States and the Soviet Union might have to send military forces into Palestine following the British evacuation, gravely endangering regional security. 3 There was other opposition to partition. The State Department

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67
Abstract only
Evil terrorists, good Americans
Richard Jackson

’ victims; even the Pentagon casualties and the soldiers fighting in Afghanistan are remade as ‘innocent Americans’. In addition, Americans are discursively reconstructed as ‘heroic’ and ‘united’. Constructing the terrorist enemy The language of identity so infuses the official discourse of the ‘war on terrorism’ that it is not

in Writing the war on terrorism
Phil Williams

2504Chap4 7/4/03 12:39 pm Page 69 4 Eurasia and the transnational terrorist threats to Atlantic security Phil Williams The terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were not only the most audacious and successful terrorist attacks the world has yet seen, but also marked the maturation of what had been described as the ‘new terrorism’. It was a maturation in several senses. In the first place it revealed that trends identified by astute specialists such as Walter Laqueur, Bruce Hoffman and Ian Lesser were, in fact, well

in Limiting institutions?
Rachel Sykes

Zero’ had been cleared and the site rebuilt.3 The ‘wailing’ of One World Trade Center provides us with a literal example of the sonic afterlife of ‘9/11’. The sound was the result of the tower’s design; first noticed by residents during Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, it had ceased entirely by the time the building was completed in January 2014. Beyond its literal noise, however, this chapter conceives of the coordinated terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on the morning of 11 September 2001 as culturally dissonant in both a real and

in The quiet contemporary American novel