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Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

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Sam Rohdie

Between 1926 and 1970, Hawks made 22 films, one of which was in Cinemascope: The Land of the Pharaohs (1955). Cinemascope, like depth of field, sequence shots, lengthy tracks, pans and the use of the zoom reduces the need for editing. Rather than fragmenting space, space can be left

in Montage
Luz Elena Ramirez

In the contemplation of Rameses II's broken statue, settled deep in the Egyptian sand, Percy Bysshe Shelley prompts us, in his 1818 sonnet ‘Ozymandias’, to reckon with an ontological puzzle. What clues to the Egyptian past do monuments, mummies and artefacts offer about the pharaohs, and who can make intelligible their inscriptions and stories? How does one interpret the pharaohs’ desire to exist beyond the expanse of human life, without imposing the coldly rational perspectives of the present? Shelley published his sonnet, named after the

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
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Angela Stienne

. Let me take you one last time to the Musée du Louvre. It is a quiet weekday morning. The walk to reach the mummy is rather long, but it is designed to take you on a journey. We are going to start this stroll in the reconstructed funerary chapel of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III. It is a somewhat hidden spot in the Louvre, but you will find it as you walk past the columns room and just before you walk

in Mummified
Setting the scene
Roger Forshaw

end of the New Kingdom and concluded with the restoration of centralised authority, and the reunification of Egypt by Psamtek I, usually accepted as the first ruler of the 26th Dynasty.  egypt of the saite pharaohs I  Political turmoil Monarchy and administration The Third Intermediate Period is typically considered to commence with the death of Ramesses XI at the end of the 20th Dynasty.2 The power of Egypt and the authority of the later Ramesside rulers had been diminishing for a number of years. During the height of the New Kingdom, foreign trade, tribute and

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Substance, symbols, and hope
Author: Andra Gillespie

The election of Barack Obama was a milestone in US history with tremendous symbolic importance for the black community. But was this symbolism backed up by substance? Did ordinary black people really benefit under the first black president?

This is the question that Andra Gillespie sets out to answer in Race and the Obama Administration. Using a variety of methodological techniques—from content analysis of executive orders to comparisons of key indicators, such as homeownership and employment rates under Clinton, Bush, and Obama— the book charts the progress of black causes and provides valuable perspective on the limitations of presidential power in addressing issues of racial inequality. Gillespie uses public opinion data to investigate the purported disconnect between Obama’s performance and his consistently high ratings among black voters, asking how far the symbolic power of the first black family in the White House was able to compensate for the compromises of political office.

Scholarly but accessible, Race and the Obama Administration will be of interest to students and lecturers in US politics and race studies, as well as to general readers who want to better understand the situation of the black community in the US today and the prospects for its improvement.

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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Nekau II and Psamtek II
Roger Forshaw

Harran, an engagement in which Nekau was defeated and forced to withdraw west of the Euphrates.1 A year later Nekau was back campaigning in Syria–Palestine, and he returned to Harran to challenge the Babylonians and their Median allies once again. On the march through Judah at Megiddo he encountered Josiah, the ruler of Judah, and in a confrontation that ensued Josiah was killed. The circumstances of Josiah’s death are described in II Kings (23.29–30): ‘In his days, Pharaoh Nekau king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates, King Josiah went to

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

The last Saite ruler, Psamtek III
Roger Forshaw

not possess. Herodotus (III, 19) claims that, although Cambyses was the creator and organiser of the fledgling Persian navy, naval power on the whole was dependent on the Phoenicians. It would appear that, although the Persians did build a large number of triremes and trained crews to man them, initially they may have been dependent on Phoenician expertise and experienced foreign sailors and oarsmen.6   egypt of the saite pharaohs Towards the end of the Saite Period, evidence would suggest that Egypt itself had a sizeable naval force which would have

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC