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The marriage of Tudor England and Habsburg Spain

The co-monarchy of Mary I and Philip II put England at the heart of early modern Europe. This positive reassessment of their joint reign counters a series of parochial, misogynist and anti-Catholic assumptions, correcting the many myths that have grown up around the marriage and explaining the reasons for its persistent marginalisation in the historiography of Tudor England. Using new archival discoveries and original sources it argues for Mary as a great Catholic queen, while fleshing out Philip’s important contributions as king of England. It demonstrates the success and many positive achievements of this glittering dynastic union in everything from culture, music and art to cartography, commerce and exploration. Philip and Mary’s negative reputation derives from a particular version of English identity and reflects confessional differences in early modern English history. The acceptability of Mary’s foreign marriage will continue to reflect the evolving relationship between Britain and Europe, and its cultural politics. Moving from the commercial and strategic interests served by Anglo-Spanish alliances, it analyses the negotiations and marriage contract, Mary’s government, the Act for the Queen’s Regal Power, the Wyatt rebellion, the co-monarchy, gynophobic polemic, court culture and ceremony, bilingual lexicography, portraiture and print, and the historical (mis)fortunes of this glittering dynastic match.

In the sixteenth century, many different stories on the Revolt in the Low Countries spread throughout Europe, written by very different authors with very different intentions. Over time this plethora of sources and interpretations faded away, leaving us with only a couple of canonical narratives, extremely opposed in essence. In this way, the Dutch and Spanish national myths were forged on the basis of two different visions of the conflict: as a liberation war and act of rebellion against cruel Spanish oppressors or as a glorious part of the history of the Spanish Empire. This book revolves around the concept of episodic narratives, factual texts on the events and its protagonists, which can be seen at first sight as anecdotic, but that happen to be the building blocks of history. This approach renders the book thought-provoking for anybody interested in the history of the Revolt in the Low Countries, but also for those who wish to understand the dynamics of early modern narratives. Since it offers a wide array of sources in different languages it also provides readers with the chance to engage with texts they do not have easy access to. How did the Spanish write about the Revolt, what can we find in Italian chronicles, what were the Jesuits writing in their letters and how does the war look like from the perspective of a local nobleman or a Spanish commander?

Frank Ardolino

elements of the Spanish Black Legend as expressed in Antonio Pérez’s Las Relaciones in order to depict Spain under Philip II as the evil enemy of Protestant England. First published in France in 1591, Las Relaciones perhaps did more to undermine Philip II’s image as a responsible and prudent monarch than any work in the anti-Hispanist tradition. 6 Kyd combines two traditions that are similar and yet

in Doing Kyd
James Naus

threatened by rogue barons such as Hugh. By the reign of Philip II crusading had been absorbed into the King’s broader sacred obligation to the Church. French kings since the time of Charlemagne had indeed defended the Church and the peace in France. Since the reign of Louis VII, however, that role had expanded to include defending the Church externally through support of the crusade. It would have been difficult for Philip seriously to consider journeying to the Latin East early in his reign. The years between the King’s coronation in 1179 and

in Constructing kingship
Diplomatic correspondence, news and narratives in the early years of the civil war in the Low Countries
M.J. Rodríguez Salgado

1 ‘Do not reveal that I wrote this’: diplomatic correspondence, news and narratives in the early years of the civil war in the Low Countries M.J. Rodríguez-Salgado ‘Reported in letters from Antwerp that exiles from Flanders have taken the island of Brill in Holland’.1 This laconic résumé could well have been the first information Philip II had of an event that would change the course of the civil war in the Low Countries.2 It was written by a royal secretary on the back of a letter dated 23 April 1572 from the ambassador in Venice, Diego Guzmán de Silva, which

in Early modern war narratives and the Revolt in the Low Countries
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Alexander Samson

a ‘monster iniquity’, which had been created by William the Silent’s Apologia (1580). This hostile presentation of Philip can be traced in all the Protestant historians of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and then in Robert Watson’s History of the Reign of Philip II (1777) and through the influential works of the nineteenth century such as those of J. A. Froude, J. L. Motley and W. H. Prescott.4 The problem with Mary is in many ways a problem with Philip. It is true that ‘[b]ecause of her marriage to the Spanish Habsburg Philip, Mary also became the

in Mary and Philip
Arlette Jouanna

thesis of the King of Spain’s responsibility is based on an important argument. Since at least 1568 and, more recently, since early August 1572, Philip II openly hoped that Charles IX would have Coligny executed.50 But the question which arises here is why he would have sought to realise this recurring wish himself by employing one of his agents (or the Guises) on 22 August precisely. His motive may seem clear – to stop the assistance that the Admiral was about to send to the Calvinist rebels in the Netherlands. This was indeed one of the consequences of the attack

in The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Arlette Jouanna

, whose possessions in the north (the Netherlands), the east (Franche-Comté) and south (Roussillon) dangerously surrounded the kingdom. It would also mark the return of the policy inaugurated by François I and Henri II, which gave priority to the realist search for external support over dealing with confessional divisions. This policy would help to weaken Philip II by assisting his Calvinist subjects in the Netherlands in revolt against him. In this project of intervening to assist the Dutch rebels, was there a way of uniting Catholics and Protestants in the service of

in The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
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Essays on The Spanish Tragedy

This book recognises the importance of the playwright and The Spanish Tragedy for the development of early modern theatre and beyond. It aims to familiarise readers with the play which, literally, set the stage for the Elizabethan revenge tragedy boom. The book revisits theories of revenge, and examines the play's latest editions, stage productions and screenplay adaptations. It takes the reader on a rewarding journey from Kyd's Proserpine to William Shakespeare's Prospero and brings personal editorial accounts on what it means to edit The Spanish Tragedy in the third millennium. The book argues that the lasting position of The Spanish Tragedy in the Low Countries is of interest from a politico-religious perspective. It advocates a shift in the critical approaches to The Spanish Tragedy, away 'from debating whether the play reflects Habsburg Spain or Renaissance Italy to considering how it portrays Mediterranean culture in relation to early modern England and its desire to play a role in the European colonial expansion'. The book further argues that The Spanish Tragedy, which has been regarded primarily as a 'blood and guts' revenge tragedy, was actually written to promote the Protestant politico-religious ethos, represented by Leicester, against Catholic Babylon/Spain under Philip II. Kyd combines aspects of the anti-Leicester tradition with elements of the Spanish Black Legend as expressed in Antonio Pérez's Las Relaciones in order to depict Spain under Philip II as the evil enemy of Protestant England.

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Alexander Samson

:41 Plate 5  Andrea Mantegna/Guilio Campagnola, Judith and Holofernes, c. 1495–1500. Tempera on poplar panel. SAMSON 9781526142238 Plate Section (colour).indd 6 10/12/2019 14:41 Plate 6 Titian, Venus and Adonis, 1554. Oil on canvas. SAMSON 9781526142238 Plate Section (colour).indd 7 10/12/2019 14:41 Plate 7 Titian, Philip II in Wolfskin, 1549. Oil on canvas. SAMSON 9781526142238 Plate Section (colour).indd 8 10/12/2019 14:41 Plate 8  Hans Eworth, Mary I, 1554. Oil on canvas. SAMSON 9781526142238 Plate Section (colour).indd 9 10/12/2019 14:41 Plate 9  Anthonis

in Mary and Philip