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Author: Tom Betteridge

This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.

The Henrician Reformation
Tom Betteridge

Chapter 1 . Pilgrims, poets and politics: the Henrician Reformation Could we, if we knew what we did, go against King Henry VIII, of whom I will say nothing but this: that His Grace’s fame and praise cannot fall but when all good letters fall, which cannot be before men leave the earth and the earth men. (A Remedy for Sedition, Sir Richard Morrison, 1536)1 S ir Richard Morrison’s A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government’s propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. It is a sophisticated work with many classical and biblical references

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
Michael Mullett

neighbourhood a range of liturgical splendour. Robert Aske, the leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace (the 1536–37 northern rising directed against the suppression of the abbeys), might have had Whalley in mind when he recalled the monasteries’ provision of ‘the devyn service of almightie God … great nombre of messes … the blissed consecracion of the sacrement’. 11 A detailed depiction of one liturgical occasion, in 1425, provides at least one insight into the drama, colour and musical wonder of the Abbey’s late medieval liturgical regime: it described in full detail the opening

in The Lancashire witches
Philippa Gregory’s narratives of national grievance
Siobhan O’Connor

Pilgrimage of Grace as ‘a massive uprising by the north, by the poor men of the north’. Utilising a discourse of loss and return that recalls Brexit fixations with sovereignty and control, she defines their cause as one of ‘respecting the old religion and restoring the lords to the King’s Council’. These ‘passionate rebels’, she claims, ‘didn’t want the middle class, what they regarded as upstarts coming in advising the king. They wanted the traditional lords to rule England and advise him’ (Gregory, 2014b ). This language of invasion, of the restoration of tradition and

in The road to Brexit
Abstract only
Tom Betteridge

that Spenser would have known the text of the ‘Ballad of the Pilgrimage of Grace’ but the authors of this text argue that the commons have been forced to mell by the foolishness of the world and that their melling is efficacious. 26 Andrew Hadfield has argued that Sir Philip Sidney was engaged in a similar project in his Apologie, arguing: ‘Sidney may well have been a Protestant, as was Surrey, but the Apologie’s argument for a ‘noble’ poetic voice based on the poetry of Surrey was designed to kill off a vernacular Protestant literary tradition and replace it with a

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
Rosemary O’Day

effects were consigned to the single sphere of religion. Thus Catholics were persecuted solely on the grounds of their being Catholic.’13 So the motivation for the Pilgrimage of Grace was a simple matter: When, therefore, they saw that under the cloak of banishing superstition nothing else was meant but stealing the sacred vessels, the silver crucifixes, the chalices that held the blood of Christ, together with all other things by which the churches were adorned, they took up arms.14 The very considerable body of work on the nature of the Pilgrimages of Grace gives the

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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How it changed
Rosemary O’Day

1536–37 198 4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:37 Page 199 THE CHURCH: HOW IT CHANGED to roughly the same effect. Everyone was very much aware of such projects. During the Pilgrimage of Grace, clergy and laity in Lincolnshire feared that Cromwell would turn his attention to the wealth of the parish churches. And among the bishops, there was a feeling that it was necessary to propitiate Cromwell with gifts and obsequious behaviour in an attempt to forestall his plunder. But, in fact, it appears that neither Cromwell nor Henry was wholeheartedly behind such a

in The Debate on the English Reformation
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Tim Thornton and Katharine Carlton

impunity as the agents of a monarchy with no alternative allies there and with no meaningful competitors for power in the shape of an urban or other middle class. This disruption manifested itself most acutely in the rebellions of the sixteenth century, the Lincolnshire Rising and the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536–37, and the Northern Rebellion of 1569, as the disciplines of civil society began to make themselves felt. Amid the cultures of honour which had governed northern society previously, it was argued by James and others, were codes of sexual behaviour which

in The gentleman’s mistress
Lucy Underwood

canonisation, and incorporated them into English Catholic hagiology. Our Lady and the English Martyrs, Cambridge, was the first foundation since the beatification. Reformation martyr-­iconography pervades, from the windows to the motifs decorating the pillars. On the baldacchino, an emblem of the Five Wounds of Christ recalls the banners of the 1536 Pilgrimage of Grace, when northerners rebelled against Henry VIII in defence of the ‘old religion’. The church’s design demonstrates awareness that constructing a landmark Catholic building in the university town historically

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
Open Access (free)
Rodney Barker

, justified, and enhanced by conflicts between identities which will raise them to even more intense levels. The destructive power of identity A recognition of the apparently irrational, eccentric, or deranged element in identity cultivation can make sense of all the ‘hopeless’ insurrections, resistances, and protests from the Pilgrimage of Grace to the 1989 revolts in Eastern Europe, which Michael Rosen presents as the ‘irrational’ catalysts of transformation, or at least of disruption. 19 Such eccentricities are irrational only within the limits of a narrow conception of

in Cultivating political and public identity