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Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Author: Tom Betteridge

This book is a study of the English Reformation as a poetic and political event. It examines the political, religious and poetic writings of the period 1520-1580, in relation to the effects of confessionalization on Tudor writing. The central argument of the book is that it is a mistake to understand this literature simply on the basis of the conflict between Protestantism and Catholicism. Instead one needs to see Tudor culture as fractured between emerging confessional identities, Protestant and Catholic, and marked by a conflict between those who embraced the process of confessionalization and those who rejected it. Sir Richard Morrison's A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government's propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. Edwardian politicians and intellectuals theorized and lauded the idea of counsel in both practice and theory. The book discusses three themes reflected in Gardiner's 1554 sermon: the self, the social effects of Reformation, and the Marian approaches to the interpretation of texts. The Marian Reformation produced its own cultural poetics - which continued to have an influence on Tudor literature long after 1558. The decade following the successful suppression of the Northern Rebellion in 1570 was a difficult one for the Elizabethan regime and its supporters. An overview of Elizabethan poetics and politics explains the extent to which the culture of the period was a product of the political and poetic debates of the early years of the Queen's reign.

The Henrician Reformation
Tom Betteridge

Chapter 1 . Pilgrims, poets and politics: the Henrician Reformation Could we, if we knew what we did, go against King Henry VIII, of whom I will say nothing but this: that His Grace’s fame and praise cannot fall but when all good letters fall, which cannot be before men leave the earth and the earth men. (A Remedy for Sedition, Sir Richard Morrison, 1536)1 S ir Richard Morrison’s A Remedy for Sedition was part of the Henrician government’s propaganda response to the Pilgrimage of Grace. It is a sophisticated work with many classical and biblical references

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation

, that the King might be persuaded into Protestantism. Religious upheaval ensued, and a great deal of confusion. Much of England’s religious tradition would find itself open to either official challenge or unofficial criticism, and in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, County Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, resistance to the dissolution of the monasteries prompted the rebellion known as the ‘Pilgrimage of Grace’, which brought turmoil to the north of England. 84 The history of

in Manchester Cathedral
Michael Mullett

neighbourhood a range of liturgical splendour. Robert Aske, the leader of the Pilgrimage of Grace (the 1536–37 northern rising directed against the suppression of the abbeys), might have had Whalley in mind when he recalled the monasteries’ provision of ‘the devyn service of almightie God … great nombre of messes … the blissed consecracion of the sacrement’. 11 A detailed depiction of one liturgical occasion, in 1425, provides at least one insight into the drama, colour and musical wonder of the Abbey’s late medieval liturgical regime: it described in full detail the opening

in The Lancashire witches
Philippa Gregory’s narratives of national grievance
Siobhan O’Connor

Pilgrimage of Grace as ‘a massive uprising by the north, by the poor men of the north’. Utilising a discourse of loss and return that recalls Brexit fixations with sovereignty and control, she defines their cause as one of ‘respecting the old religion and restoring the lords to the King’s Council’. These ‘passionate rebels’, she claims, ‘didn’t want the middle class, what they regarded as upstarts coming in advising the king. They wanted the traditional lords to rule England and advise him’ (Gregory, 2014b ). This language of invasion, of the restoration of tradition and

in The road to Brexit
Andrew Hadfield

seeds of that individualistic conception of ownership which was to carry all before it after the Civil War’. 100 However, it did change the nature of the market for land and so may well have helped inaugurate the Industrial Revolution through making areas available for industrial development in the next 150 years. 101 It is hardly surprising that the dissolution led to the most serious threat to Henry VIII's reign, the Pilgrimage of Grace (1536–37), when 40,000 men from

in Literature and class
Living spirituality

Between 1598 and 1800, an estimated 3, 271 Catholic women left England to enter convents on the Continent. This study focuses more particularly upon those who became Benedictines in the seventeenth century, choosing exile in order to pursue their vocation for an enclosed life. Through the study of a wide variety of original manuscripts, including chronicles, death notices, clerical instructions, texts of spiritual guidance, but also the nuns’ own collections of notes, this book highlights the tensions between the contemplative ideal and the nuns’ personal experiences. Its first four chapters adopt a traditional historical approach to illustrate the tensions between theory and practice in the ideal of being dead to the world. They offer a prosopographical study of Benedictine convents in exile, and show how those houses were both cut-off and enclosed yet very much in touch with the religious and political developments at home. The next fur chapters propose a different point of entry into the history of nuns, with a study of emotions and the senses in the cloister, delving into the textual analysis of the nuns’ personal and communal documents to explore aspect of a lived spirituality, when the body, which so often hindered the spirit, at times enabled spiritual experience.

Abstract only
Tom Betteridge

that Spenser would have known the text of the ‘Ballad of the Pilgrimage of Grace’ but the authors of this text argue that the commons have been forced to mell by the foolishness of the world and that their melling is efficacious. 26 Andrew Hadfield has argued that Sir Philip Sidney was engaged in a similar project in his Apologie, arguing: ‘Sidney may well have been a Protestant, as was Surrey, but the Apologie’s argument for a ‘noble’ poetic voice based on the poetry of Surrey was designed to kill off a vernacular Protestant literary tradition and replace it with a

in Literature and politics in the English Reformation
Rosemary O’Day

effects were consigned to the single sphere of religion. Thus Catholics were persecuted solely on the grounds of their being Catholic.’13 So the motivation for the Pilgrimage of Grace was a simple matter: When, therefore, they saw that under the cloak of banishing superstition nothing else was meant but stealing the sacred vessels, the silver crucifixes, the chalices that held the blood of Christ, together with all other things by which the churches were adorned, they took up arms.14 The very considerable body of work on the nature of the Pilgrimages of Grace gives the

in The Debate on the English Reformation