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For women writers, the decades of the English Civil War were of special importance. This book presents a complex and rewarding poetic culture that is both uniquely women-centred and integrally connected to the male canonical poetry. It brings together extensive selections of poetry by the five most prolific and prominent women poets of the English Civil War: Anne Bradstreet, Hester Pulter, Margaret Cavendish, Katherine Philips, and Lucy Hutchinson. All these five women were attracting new and concerted attention as poets by seventeenth-century women. Bradstreet's poems first appeared in The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America, and the later volume of Several Poemsincluded revised texts of those poems and several new ones. Each version of the poems spoke more directly on the context of the English Civil War. Pulter's poems construe Broadfield as a place of unwelcome isolation: she describes herself as 'shut up in a country grange', 'tied to one habitation', and 'buried, thus, alive'. Philips's poetry was first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, suggest Philips as a poet writing on matters of political significance. Cavendish's two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. Across poetry and prose, print and manuscript, Hutchinson's writing bears the marks of her fervent hostility to corrupt rulers and her remarkably broad education, adventurous reading habits, and energetic intellect.

Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

first printed in 1664, her state-political poems, on members of the royal family and events of the Civil War, Interregnum, and Restoration, were all placed at the beginning of the volume – suggesting that Philips should be read as a poet writing on matters of political significance.2 For Margaret Cavendish, the two major editions of Poems and Fancies in 1653 and 1664 each have strongly competing claims both to textual authority and to the more resonant political moment. While 1653 is 318 Textual introduction usually prioritised as the first iteration of Cavendish

in Women poets of the English Civil War
Abstract only
Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

manuscript writing and exchange, but these manuscript-based texts have been far less visible to literary history than the printed tradition. Hester Pulter’s and Lucy Hutchinson’s poems exemplify the extent and depth of women’s poetry in manuscript culture, as do the extensive manuscript-based activities of Katherine Philips. This anthology presents these manuscript poems alongside those that were printed in the volumes of Anne Bradstreet (The Tenth Muse, 1650; Several Poems, 1678), Margaret Cavendish (Poems and Fancies, 1653 and 1664), and Philips (Poems, 1664 and 1667

in Women poets of the English Civil War
Genre and literary tradition in Katherine Philips’s early poetry
Gillian Wright

devote their efforts to just one literary genre or subject. Finding the creative means to negotiate and rework a wider range of poetic genres seems to have been a challenge too far. By the mid-seventeenth century, however, change was underway. In Poems and Fancies (1653), Margaret Cavendish (1623?–73) – supported, admittedly, by a devoted and poetically knowledgeable husband – published verses on a wide range of subjects and in a wide range of genres.6 Yet although Cavendish did work to some extent with established genres, such as dialogues, many of the forms and

in Early modern women and the poem
Sarah C.E. Ross and Elizabeth Scott-Baumann

a history of the Civil War and a defence of her family’s own involvement. 200 Margaret Cavendish Figure 5  Frontispiece from Margaret Cavendish, Poems and Fancies (1653). 201 Women poets of the English Civil War From Philosophical Fancies (1653) Of Sense and Reason Exercised in their Different Shapes If every thing hath sense and reason, then There might be beasts, and birds, and fish, and men: As vegetables and minerals, had they The animal shape to express that way; And vegetables and minerals may know, As man, though like to trees and stones they grow

in Women poets of the English Civil War
Paul Salzman

twice, in Poems and Fancies (1653), sig. A3v and Sociable Letters (1664) sig. b; in neither case is there a specific ascription to Denny. Again, this is an interesting instance of the currency of Denny’s poem and the invisibility of Wroth’s reply. A significant pointer to a common source for the British Library, Huntington and Beineicke Osborne versions is a shared error in line 17 caused by eye-skip: these manuscripts all read ‘And write a thousand lynes of the at least / And by thy lynes describe a drunken beast’, where Clifton has ‘And write a thousand lies of thee

in Early modern women and the poem
Abstract only
Sukanta Chaudhuri

’ Text based on Margaret Cavendish, Poems, and Fancies, London: T[homas] R[oycroft] for J[ohn] Martin and J. Allestrye, 1653 (sigs 2A3v–2A4r: wrongly paginated 142–3). 257. Margaret Cavendish, ‘A Shepherd’s Employment Is Too Mean an Allegory for Noble Ladies’ Text based on Margaret Cavendish, Poems, and Fancies, London: T[homas] R[oycroft] for J[ohn] Martin and J. Allestrye, 1653 (sig. 2A4r– v: wrongly paginated 143–4). 258. Margaret Cavendish, ‘Similizing the Sea to Meadows and Pastures’ Text based on Margaret Cavendish, Poems, and Fancies, London: T[homas] R

in A Companion to Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance
Amanda L. Capern

–​88. 51 Margaret Cavendish, The Worlds Olio (London, 1655), in Women’s Political Writings, i, 223; Cavendish, ‘A Dialogue between a Bountifull Knight, and a Castle ruin’d in War’ and ‘A Dialogue betwixt Peace, and War’, Poems and Fancies (London, 1653) in Women’s Political Writings, i, 210–​14. 52 Eleanor Davies, ‘Je le Tien’, in Cope, ed., Prophetic Writings of Lady Eleanor Davies, pp. 205–​06. 53 Eleanor Davies, The New Jerusalem at Hand (London, 1649), pp. 5, 8. 54 Eleanor Davies, For the Most Honorable States Sitting at Whitehall (London, 1649), Frontispiece

in From Republic to Restoration
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Sukanta Chaudhuri

Antwerp. Margaret then returned to Notes on authors 255 England in an unsuccessful bid to rescue her husband’s estates from the parliamentarians. In her more relaxed life after the Restoration, acquired a reputation for idiosyncratic behaviour. Her Poems and Fancies (1653; rev. 1664 and 1668) was followed the same year by Philosophical Fancies. These and later volumes took up philosophical and metaphysical issues, culminating in the prose Grounds of Natural Philosophy (1668). These pursuits won her an invitation to the Royal Society in 1667. Orations of Divers

in A Companion to Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance
Marie Helena Loughlin

–73), writer Staunch royalist and maid of honour to Queen Henrietta Maria, Cavendish published Poems and Fancies and Philosophical Fancies in 1653, both of which display her lifelong interest in natural science. Later, she published plays; a miscellany of poetry, fiction, and autobiography (Nature’s Pictures, 1656); and 39 relics  objects belonging to or bodily parts of a saint; objects of devotion in the Catholic tradition, of superstition and idolatry in the Protestant. 40 escheat  when an estate with no direct male heir reverts to the next closest male relative. The

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735