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Return to the West?
James W. Peterson
Jacek Lubecki

and July 1991 (through the Budapest and Prague declarations respectively), the last Soviet troops did not leave Poland until September 1993. The period in-between was fraught with external strategic and internal ambiguity. Overall, Poland was unsure what course to follow and appeared to be the least likely candidate for liberal democratic reforms in the defense establishment. With few exceptions, Poland’s new non

in Defense policies of East-Central European countries after 1989
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Splendid isolation?
Thomas Prosser

, Spanish and Portuguese have benefits for the unemployed. (OPZZ leader Jan Guz on the 14 November 2012 European Day of Action and Solidarity) Poland is a non-member of the Eurozone. Despite this, the Polish labour movement was exposed to pressures associated with Europeanization. This was particularly the case at tripartite level; scholars at one point predicted that Polish tripartism would ready the country for membership of the euro (Meardi, 2006 ). Given this concern, a key issue is the extent to which Polish unions

in European labour movements in crisis
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Great War humanitarianism as a history of failure
Elisabeth Piller

When the history of Poland during the war comes to be written the world will stand aghast at the story of her sufferings. 1 This chapter focuses on the Commission for Relief in Poland (CRP), an American humanitarian organisation which intended to mitigate civilian suffering in German-occupied Poland during the Great War. 2 The CRP was incorporated in early 1915 following an agreement between the Rockefeller Foundation and German authorities. Yet its projected

in Humanitarianism and the Greater War, 1914–24
Sidi NDiaye

This article describes the brutalisation of the bodies of Tutsi and Jewish victims in 1994 and during the Second World War, respectively, and contrasts the procedures adopted by killers to understand what these deadly practices say about the imaginaries at work in Rwanda and Poland. Dealing with the infernalisation of the body, which eventually becomes a form of physical control, this comparative work examines the development of groups and communities of killers in their particular social and historical context. Different sources are used, such as academic works, reports from victims organisations and non-governmental organisations, books, testimonies and film documentaries.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
A staged evolution or failed revolution?
Tom Junes

5 The demise of communism in Poland: a staged evolution or failed revolution? Tom Junes The East European revolutions The demise of communism in Poland Even after so many years, the most striking fact about the demise of communism in Poland remains that it happened through a peaceful and negotiated process. Having seemingly unfolded quite suddenly, it was the result of several inter-playing factors over a longer period of time than the actual events of the spring and summer of 1989. Changes in the international geopolitical context, a disastrous economic

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Jan Pakulski

followers), 2 always target both elite strata. National decapitations, as Robert Conquest, Timothy Snyder, the Memorial Group of historians in Russia, and the Instytut Pamie˛ci Narodowej (IPN, Institute of National Remembrance) historians in Poland argue, destroy whole societies and nations. An eliticide, when prolonged and ruthless, endangers social, political and moral order and undermines the capacity

in Violence and the state
The afterlives of human remains at the Bełzec extermination camp
Zuzanna Dziuban

38 2 (Re)politicising the dead in post-​Holocaust Poland: the afterlives of human remains at the Bełzec extermination camp1 Zuzanna Dziuban At the official dedication of the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe on 10 May 2005 in Berlin, Lea Rosh, a German journalist who launched and led the long-​lasting campaign for the erection of this contentious monument,2 herself became a source of extreme controversy. During her impassioned speech, held in front of a large and engaged audience including Holocaust survivors, their relatives and Jewish religious

in Human remains in society
Barbara Arciszewska

13 The role of ancient remains in the Sarmatian culture of early modern Poland Barbara Arciszewska 286 Z01_CdeD Book01_B.indb 286 Visible material remnants of ancient cultures were, for a variety of historical reasons, not particularly abundant in the territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795). The past monuments of these lands were not created in stone and marble but in timber, hence leaving behind no impressive structures to provoke the interest of subsequent generations. Indeed, writing in 1575, André Thevet (1516–90), court cosmographer

in Local antiquities, local identities
Sacralisation and militarisation in the remembrance of the ‘cursed soldiers’
Marije Hristova
Monika Żychlińska

Between 2012 and 2017, at the Ł-section of Warsaw’s Powązki Military Cemetery, or ‘Łączka’, the Polish Institute of National Remembrance exhumed a mass grave containing the remains of post-war anti-communist resistance fighters. Being referred to as the ‘cursed soldiers’, these fighters have become key figures in post-2015 Polish memory politics. In this article we focus on the role of the volunteers at these exhumations in the production of the ‘cursed soldiers’ memory. Following the idea of community archaeology as a civil society-building practice, the observed processes of sacralisation and militarisation show how the exhumations create a community of memory that promotes the core values of the currently governing national-conservative PiS party. We found that tropes related to forensic research and typically identified with cosmopolitan memory paradigms are used within a generally nationalist and antagonistic memory framework.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
An Interview with Irina Mützelburg (October 2022)
Brendan Lawson
Joël Glasman
, and
Irina Mützelburg

Ukraine across Europe. Journalists often pick one of these three categories to talk about the ‘number of refugees’ in a certain country. For instance, many newspapers claimed that there were more than 3 or 4 million refugees in Poland (citing UNHCR); yet, these figures pertained to the border crossings from Ukraine to Poland. A certain proportion of the people crossed the border multiple times to go back and forth between Poland and Ukraine, while others continued their journey to other countries. For

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs