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Essays on the English nation and commonwealth in the sixteenth century

This book is a response to a demand for a history which is no less social than political, investigating what it meant to be a citizen of England living through the 1570s and 1580s. It examines the growing conviction of ‘Englishness’ in the sixteenth century, through the rapidly developing English language; the reinforcement of cultural nationalism as a result of the Protestant Reformation; the national and international situation of England at a time of acute national catastrophe; and through Queen Elizabeth I, the last of her line, who remained unmarried throughout her reign, refusing to even discuss the succession to her throne. The book explores the conviction among leading Elizabethans that they were citizens and subjects, also responsible for the safety of their commonwealth. The tensions between this conviction, born from a childhood spent in the Renaissance classics and in the subjection to the Old Testament of the English Bible, and the dynastic claims of the Tudor monarchy, are all explored at length. Studies of a number of writers who fixed the image of sixteenth-century England for some time to come; Foxe, Camden and other pioneers of the discovery of England are also included.

D.G. Paz

This article addresses three topics. It describes Chartisms creation of a ‘peoples history’ as an alternative to middle-class history, whether Whig or Tory. It locates the sources, most of which have not been noticed before, for the Chartist narrative of the English Reformation. William Cobbetts reinterpretation of the English Reformation is well known as a source for the working-class narrative; William Howitts much less familiar but more important source, antedating Cobbetts History of the Protestant Reformation in England, is used for the first time. The article reconstructs that narrative using printed and manuscript lectures and published interpretations dating from the first discussions of the Peoples Charter in 1836 to the last Chartist Convention in 1858. The manuscript lectures of Thomas Cooper are an essential but little-used source. The article contributes to historical understanding of the intellectual life of the English working class.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
A history of the Collegiate Church and Cathedral, 1421 to the present
Editor: Jeremy Gregory

Founded in 1421, the Collegiate Church of Manchester, which became a cathedral in 1847, is of outstanding historical and architectural importance. But until now it has not been the subject of a comprehensive study. Appearing on the 600th anniversary of the Cathedral’s inception by Henry V, this book explores the building’s past and its place at the heart of the world's first industrial city, touching on everything from architecture and music to misericords and stained glass. Written by a team of renowned experts and beautifully illustrated with more than 100 photographs, this history of the ‘Collegiate Church’ is at the same time a history of the English church in miniature.

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Mairi Cowan

-Reformation Scotland was not static. Lay devotional practice in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries changed in a number of ways, and for the most part these changes were not early Protestant or crypto-Protestant or even proto-Protestant, but Catholic; Scotland’s religious changes in the early sixteenth century were not part of the Protestant Reformation, but part of Catholic reform. They were brought

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560
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Derricke, Dürer, and Foxe
Thomas Herron

subjects Derricke’s poem makes ready recourse to apocalyptic rhetoric, casting the Irish as papist satanic rebels and the English as godly Protestant heroes. Vincent Carey notes ‘Derricke’s Protestant and apocalyptic Image of divine retribution against the native population’ which ‘precedes the extreme views of tracts like Spenser’s View [ of the Present State of Ireland ] by almost twenty years’. 20 Moreover, Derricke’s anti-Catholic bile followed Protestant reformation writing from the generation previous

in John Derricke’s The Image of Irelande: with a Discoverie of Woodkarne
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Joseph Webster

Protestant family, the blood of heroes, evil enemies, and divine victory. Drawing on the logic of Orange conspiracism, described in Chapter 2 , many of my informants went further and actively inverted the case for independence, contending that, far from liberating Scotland from the yoke of oppression, a ‘Yes’ vote would instead plunge Scotland into a deeper (and more formal) bondage to ‘Rome’. The result, I suggest, was that Orangemen in Scotland came to regard the independence referendum as a referendum on the Protestant Reformation, as well as a referendum on Protestant

in The religion of Orange politics
The abjection of the Middle Ages
Thomas A. Prendergast and Stephanie Trigg

As a disciplinary formation, medieval studies has long been structured by authoritative hierarchies and conservative scholarly decorums; the associated fear of error in medieval studies dates back to the Renaissance and the Protestant reformation. In contrast, medievalism increasingly celebrates creative play and imaginative invention. Such invention inevitably produces anxiety about historical accuracy. Popular scholarship and journalism in turn are often attracted to the abject otherness of the Middle Ages, especially the torture practices associated with its judicial systems. Such practices are designed to solicit the truth, and so, like illness, mortality and death, they are a useful double trope through which to analyse the relationship between medieval and medievalist approaches to the past.

in Affective medievalism
Author: Mairi Cowan

This book examines lay religious culture in Scottish towns between the Black Death and the Protestant Reformation. Part I looks at what the living did to influence the dead and at how the dead were believed to influence the living in turn. It shows that the living and the dead shared a reciprocal relationship of obligation and assistance, and that the bonds between the two groups were especially strong when they involved blood or guild kinship. Part II considers the overlapping communities in Scottish towns where people could personalize religious expression in a meaningful social context. Part III focuses on the period between 1350 and 1560 as one of disruption and development. It assesses weaknesses in the Scottish ecclesiastical structure and instances of religious dissent, and then it considers the Scottish Church’s response to these challenges. Two main arguments run through the book. The first is that most laypeople in Scottish towns continued to participate in orthodox Catholic practices right through to the mid-sixteenth century. The second major argument is that Catholic religious practices in Scottish towns underwent a significant shift between 1350 and 1560. This shift, which is most easily perceived when Scotland is considered within the broader European transition from the medieval to the early modern period, brought with it a kind of pre-Reformation reformation in religious practice.

History, radicalism, and John Foxe
Author: Susan Royal

This book addresses a perennial question of the English Reformation: to what extent, if any, the late medieval dissenters known as lollards influenced the Protestant Reformation in England. To answer this question, this book looks at the appropriation of the lollards by evangelicals such as William Tyndale, John Bale, and especially John Foxe, and through them by their seventeenth-century successors. Because Foxe included the lollards in his influential tome, Acts and Monuments (1563), he was the most important conduit for their individual stories, including that of John Wyclif (d. 1384), and lollard beliefs and ecclesiology. Foxe’s reorientation of the lollards from heretics and traitors to martyrs and model subjects portrayed them as Protestants’ spiritual forebears. Scholars have argued that to accomplish this, Foxe heavily edited radical lollard views on episcopacy, baptism, preaching, conventicles, tithes, and oaths, either omitting them from his book or moulding them into forms compatible with a magisterial Reformation. This book shows that Foxe in fact made no systematic attempt to downplay radical lollard beliefs, and that much non-mainstream material exists in the text. These views, legitimised by Foxe’s inclusion of them in his book, allowed for later dissenters to appropriate the lollards as historical validation of their theological and ecclesiological positions. The book traces the ensuing struggle for the lollard, and indeed the Foxean, legacy between conformists and nonconformists, arguing that the same lollards that Foxe used to bolster the English church in the sixteenth century would play a role in its fragmentation in the seventeenth.

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Mairi Cowan

in asserting their individual identities, with their frustrations in the face of systemic weaknesses and their repeated efforts at reform. This bell survived the Protestant Reformation only to be fractured and recast in the nineteenth century. 1 Like the religious culture it once represented, the bell can now be heard only as through a glass, muffled; the overtones of its peals come to us in the form of scattered evidence

in Death, life, and religious change in Scottish towns, c.1350–1560