Nekau II and Psamtek II
Roger Forshaw

5 The heirs of Psamtek I: Nekau II and Psamtek II I  Nekau II Levantine policy Following the death of Psamtek I in 610 BC, his only known son, Nekau, born by Mehytenweskhet C, was crowned king as Nekau II. The earliest evidence relating to him is of his campaigning east of the river Euphrates against the Babylonians, in an action either previously sanctioned by Psamtek or already under way at the time of Psamtek’s death. Nekau and the Egyptian army marched north and together with their Assyrian allies confronted a combined force of Babylonians and Medes at

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

Foreign relations and internal reforms
Roger Forshaw

that it once was. In Palestine, the latest datable evidence points to a gradual disintegration of Assyrian rule. Assyrian deeds of sale relating to 651 BC and 649 BC have been found at Gezer, there was an Assyrian governor in Samaria in 646 BC and Ashurbanipal campaigned in the Levant in 644 BC to put down revolts in Ushu, Tyre and Akko. It would appear that, by the 630s BC, Assyrian Carchemish Harran Kimuhu ? Quaramati ? us Hamath E up h r at e s Byblos Mediterranean Sea Sidon Tyre Megiddo Ashkelon Gaza Babylon Ashdod Campaigns of Psamtek I (616 BC

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Penelope Wilson

burials. Although the ushabti figures with the name Psamtek clearly belonged to a king, it is not immediately clear to which of the three kings called Psamtek they can be attributed. The name ‘Psamtek’, which is usually the nomen of the Saite kings concerned, is preceded by ‘King of Upper and Lower Egypt’ and has thus become the prenomen of the kings to whom the ushabtis belonged (Aubert and Aubert 1974: 211; Reeves 1996: 95). The transposition of prenomen and nomen may be due to the fact that Psamtek I was the founder of the new dynasty and that there was no reason to

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Roger Forshaw

-born Egyptians once again fully controlled the country. From its early ‘Libyan’ roots the Kingdom of the West expanded the territory under its control, and then Psamtek I, the first ruler of the 26th Dynasty, went on to reunify Egypt, a process which he seemingly achieved largely through the saite era diplomatic means. Indeed, an important aspect of the Saite Period in general was to favour diplomacy over the use of military force. Psamtek re-established central government, which in time achieved stability for the country, after the previous periods of political fragmentation

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Civil war to prosperity
Roger Forshaw

traced back to reign of Psamtek I, when it is attested on two statues belonging to a certain Pakhraef.88 At that time, the role related to Psamtek’s reform of the administration in Middle Egypt. Later it is attested during the reign of Psamtek II when the title was held by Yulehen, and again during the reign of Ahmose by Psamtik-Meryptah.89 Increased attention was given to the administration of temples and their land-holdings during the later Saite Period. In the reign of Ahmose there appears a ‘Manager of the Fields’ (mr AH) who had the power to assign and reassign

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Reunification of Egypt
Roger Forshaw

3 Psamtek ‘the Great’: reunification of Egypt Psamtek I inherited the throne of the Kingdom of the West in 664 BC1 following the death of his father, Nekau, by which time the Kingdom had become the most powerful state in the Delta. The territory he ruled extended from the Mediterranean coast south to Memphis and included sovereignty over the important cities of Athribis and Heliopolis. There is some uncertainty over the events of the early years of Psamtek’s reign as much of the available information is based on Classical sources and derived from an oral

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Angela P. Thomas

, included relief offering scenes of Tuthmosis IV and Ramesses III, a lintel of Ramesses II, part of a lintel of Psamtek I and Nitocris, the base of a naophorous statue of Ramesses III, a triad of Osiris, Isis and Horus, remains of granite naoi of Nectanebo I and Nectanebo II, part of a stela with a hymn to Osiris and buried in sand a limestone stela of Unnefer (Mariette 1869: 4–5; Mariette 1880a: 36–7; Mariette 1880b: cat. nos. 76, 354, 1053, 1126, 1129, 1289, 1424; Porter and Moss 1937: 70–1). The stela is an important monument of Unnefer, dated to year 42 of the reign

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Setting the scene
Roger Forshaw

end of the New Kingdom and concluded with the restoration of centralised authority, and the reunification of Egypt by Psamtek I, usually accepted as the first ruler of the 26th Dynasty.  egypt of the saite pharaohs I  Political turmoil Monarchy and administration The Third Intermediate Period is typically considered to commence with the death of Ramesses XI at the end of the 20th Dynasty.2 The power of Egypt and the authority of the later Ramesside rulers had been diminishing for a number of years. During the height of the New Kingdom, foreign trade, tribute and

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC