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Tim Aistrope

THIS CHAPTER EXAMINES the practical manifestation of the War of Ideas strategy in United States (US) State Department public diplomacy, as well as more recent counter-radicalisation efforts under the Obama administration. It does so by focusing on several programmes involved in direct engagements with anti-Americanism and extremist ideology: the

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy
Suetyi Lai and Li Zhang

5 Public diplomacy of the European Union in East Asia Suetyi Lai and Li Zhang Introduction When public diplomacy broadly refers to attempts by one government to influence foreign publics, governments from Europe have been among the first to practise it, for example with the establishment of the Alliance Française in 1883 and of the British Council in 1934. Yet the public diplomacy of the EU as a collective institution appeared much later, while studies of public diplomacy itself focus mostly on the country level. This chapter is devoted to understanding the

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Soft culture, cold partners
Author: Carla Konta

The book represents the first comprehensive account of the public and cultural diplomacy campaigns carried out by the United States in Yugoslavia during the height of the Cold War. Based on extensive multinational archival research, as well as private papers and personal interviews, this book charts the reasoning behind the US campaign and the impact it had on specific Yugoslav communities and individuals. American soft power, as a form of cultural power, deliberately sought to ‘open up’ a relatively closed society through the provision and diffusion of liberal traditions, ideas, and ideals. Tito and his Party allowed USIA and State Department cultural programs to enter Yugoslavia, liberated from Soviet control, to open cultural centres and pavilions at its main fairs, to broadcast Voice of America, and have American artists tour the country. Exchanges of intellectual and political personnel helped foster the US–Yugoslav relationship, but posed severe ideological challenges for both countries. By providing new insights into porous borders between freedom and coercion in Tito’s regime, the book shows how public diplomacy acted as an external input for Yugoslav liberalization and dissident movements. Meant for students, scholars, and general readers interested in the cultural Cold War, international relations, and diplomacy, this book fills a gap in the literature by looking at the political role of culture in US–Yugoslav bilateral relations, analysing the fluid links between information and propaganda, and the unintended effects propaganda can produce beyond the control of producers and receivers.

Abstract only
Games within games
Editor: J. Simon Rofe

The purpose of this book is to critically enhance the appreciation of diplomacy and sport in global affairs from the perspective of practitioners and scholars. The book will make an important new contribution to at least two distinct fields: diplomacy and sport, as well as to those concerned with history, politics, sociology and international relations. The critical analysis the book provides explores the linkages across these fields, particularly in relation to soft power and public diplomacy, and is supported by a wide range of sources and methodologies. The book draws in a range of scholars across these different fields, and includes esteemed FIFA scholar Professor Alan Tomlinson. Tomlinson addresses diplomacy within the world’s global game of Association Football, while other subjects include the rise of mega-sport events as sites of diplomacy, new consideration of Chinese ping-pong diplomacy prior to the 1970s and the importance of boycotts in sport – particularly in relation to newly explored dimensions of the boycotts of the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games. The place of non-state actors is explored throughout: be they individual or institutions they perform a crucial role as conduits of the transactions of sport and diplomacy. Based on twentieth- and twenty-first-century evidence, the book acknowledges antecedents from the ancient Olympics to the contemporary era, and in its conclusions offers avenues for further study based on the future sport and diplomacy relationship. The book has a strong international basis because it covers a broad range of countries, their diplomatic relationship with sport and is written by a truly transnational cast of authors. The intense media scrutiny of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup and other international sports will also contribute to the global interest in this volume.

Author: Tim Aistrope

Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy examines the relationship between secrecy, power and interpretation around international political controversy, where foreign policy orthodoxy comes up hard against alternative interpretations. It does so in the context of American foreign policy during the War on Terror, a conflict that was quintessentially covert and conspiratorial. This book adds a new dimension to the debate by examining what I coin the ‘Arab-Muslim paranoia narrative’: the view that Arab-Muslim resentment towards America was motivated to some degree by a paranoid perception of American power in the Middle East. Immediately after 9/11, prominent commentators pointed to an Arab-Muslim culture of blame and a related tendency towards conspiracy theories about America’s regional influence as an important cultural driver of anti-Americanism. This narrative subsequently made its way into numerous US Government policy documents and initiatives advancing a War of Ideas strategy aimed at winning the ‘hearts and minds’ of Arab-Muslims. The book provides a novel reading of the processes through which legitimacy and illegitimacy is produced in foreign policy discourses. It will also appeal to a wider cross-disciplinary audience interested in the burgeoning issues of conspiracy, paranoia, and popular knowledge, including their relationship to and consequences for contemporary politics.

Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

intervention against them. We are not talking about the end of humanitarianism. China has shown itself willing to commit money and expert personnel to assist with natural disasters (the Philippines, Nepal), especially when there is a strategic pay-off. An urge to help, and the public diplomacy that goes with it, will see China join other major states in making the right noises and doing the right thing (even if, like most other governments, follow-through is poor). This is particularly the case when it comes to natural disasters. The difficulty

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Carla Konta

Gamal Abdel Nasser, Tito signed the Declaration of Brioni in July 1956, giving birth to the Non-Aligned Movement organization (NAM). 8 Yugoslavia became a top priority for Washington’s public diplomacy creators after 1950. First the Truman and then the Eisenhower administrations adopted a policy of ‘keeping Tito afloat.’ The State Department policymakers coined the term ‘wedge strategy’ to indicate the foreign relations approach to Yugoslavia. The strategy consisted in supporting Yugoslav nationalism to instigate divisions between the Soviet Union and other

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
Concluding thoughts on sport and diplomacy
Aaron Beacom and J. Simon Rofe

developed through the book; namely conceptual issues relating to diplomacy, patterns of public diplomacy and the sports boycott as a diplomatic tool. This forms the basis for an assessment of the trajectory of sport as a dimension of the diplomatic framework. Drawing on the analysis contained in this book, what this concluding chapter captures is the increasingly entangled relationship between sport and diplomacy, where sport can itself be considered a diplomatic act, in the contexts, for example, of interest representation and mediation. In this sense the book has

in Sport and diplomacy
Rethinking Europe’s strategies and policies
Authors: Weiqing Song and Jianwei Wang

Since the mid-1990s, the European Union has defined the Asia-Pacific as one of its key strategic targets on its ambitious road towards global power. The EU has ever since made consistent efforts to implement strategies, policies and activities in the Asia-Pacific. Over the past decades, big changes have taken place on both sides and the wider world. It is high time to evaluate the EU’s performance in its Asian policy. In fact, the EU is at crossroads with its Asia Pacific policy. On several aspects, the EU is compelled to redefine its interests and roles, and rethink its strategies and policies towards the dynamic and ever-important Asia-Pacific region of the contemporary world. This volume addresses this theme, by elaborating the general context, major issues and countries in the EU’s Asia-Pacific policy. It covers issues and areas of traditional security, economy and trade, public diplomacy, and human security and focuses on the EU’s relations with China, Japan, the ASEAN countries and Australasia.

Carla Konta

for Party members, and admission of foreigners, stressed the report, were ‘all point[ing] to a general liberalization.’ While partly inaccurate and partly overestimating the chance for the regime’s prompt liberalization, Project TROY emphasized how the United States should give Yugoslavia ‘every possible support in developing an economic and political life independent of Russia.’ 7 The third aspect of US involvement in Yugoslavia – its public diplomacy strategy and soft-power policies – worked to increase Yugoslav orientation, especially in ‘official circles

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70