Patrick O’Leary

Indian railroads fostered a political and socio-cultural revolution. 1 These metal arteries played a very important part in India’s development and, in particular, in Punjab’s rural economy. But the main lines, in general, were routed to suit the needs of the military and to provide links from the interior to the main ports. 2 Perhaps the most important of

in Servants of the empire
Patrick O’Leary

the letter headings, it is quite apparent that the Punjab government, in this instance represented by Fitzpatrick, were in a unique position in that for much of the year – it could be for six months or more – they shared a summer location with the Viceroy and his government in Simla. Simla’s main churches, schools, government and military offices, its theatre and restaurants

in Servants of the empire
Patrick O’Leary

was thought, often mistakenly, to support missionary zeal. 16 By the 1880s security had become more soundly based than hitherto in that the Indian army, which now numbered some 130,000 men, had almost entirely replaced recruitment of Brahmans from the Ganges valley, from whose ranks most of the 1857 mutineers had come, with that of soldiers from the ‘martial races’ of Punjab

in Servants of the empire
Indrani Sen

unusual memsahib who was concerned with the disadvantaged position of women in the province was the intrepid Flora Annie Steel ( 1847–1929 ), the Punjab-based administrator’s wife who closely involved herself in the ‘civilising mission’ and was actively involved in female schooling. Steel, who dominated the ideological landscape of the British Raj in diverse ways, was also a

in Gendered transactions
The Irish in Punjab, 1881–1921

The British empire was actually an amalgam of Irish, Scottish, Welsh and English empires. Punjab, 'the pride of British India', attracted the cream of the Indian Civil Service (ICS), many of the most influential of whom were Irish. Some of these men, along with Irish viceroys, were inspired by their Irish backgrounds to ensure security of tenure for the Punjabi peasant, besides developing vast irrigation schemes which resulted in the province becoming India's most affluent. This book aims to ascertain whether backgrounds of Irish public servants in Punjab, and that of Irish viceroys in dealing with Punjab affairs, engendered attitudes which were so different. The nub of the matter is whether an Irish background influenced public servants in their duties, whether or not they thought themselves primarily as British or Irish. The first part of the book deals with three Indian public services: the ICS, the Indian Medical Service (IMS) and the Indian Public Works Department (PWD). The social, religious, ethnic and educational backgrounds of Irish recruits these services and the reasons behind the remarkable increase in Irish recruitment are then discussed. British and Irish public servants influenced domestic Indian politics, especially in the admission of Indians to the very services dominated by the British. Perhaps the long-term but impermanent commitment of Irish people to the furtherance of British colonial aims merits a more apt designation, one perhaps less pejorative than 'collaborator'. Twentieth-century contemporaries made connections between north-west India and Northern Ireland by dubbing Punjab the 'Ulster of India'.

The Radcliffe boundary commission and the partition of Punjab
Author: Lucy P. Chester

This book is the first full-length study of the 1947 drawing of the Indo-Pakistani boundary in Punjab. It uses the Radcliffe commission, headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe , as a window onto the decolonisation and independence of India and Pakistan. Examining the competing interests that influenced the actions of the various major players, the book highlights British efforts to maintain a grip on India even as the decolonisation process spun out of control. It examines the nature of power relationships within the colonial state, with a focus on the often-veiled exertion of British colonial power. With conflict between Hindus , Muslims and Sikhs reaching unprecedented levels in the mid-1940s , British leaders felt compelled to move towards decolonization. The partition was to be perceived as a South Asian undertaking, with British officials acting only as steady and impartial guides. Radcliffe's use of administrative boundaries reinforced the impact of imperial rule. The boundaries that Radcliffe defined turned out to be restless divisions, and in both the 1965 and 1971 wars India and Pakistan battled over their Punjabi border. After the final boundary, known as the 'Radcliffe award', was announced, all sides complained that Radcliffe had not taken the right 'other factors' into account. Radcliffe's loyalty to British interests is key to understanding his work in 1947. Drawing on extensive archival research in India, Pakistan and Britain, combined with innovative use of cartographic sources, the book paints a vivid picture of both the partition process and the Radcliffe line's impact on Punjab.

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Patrick O’Leary

extremity, and it was possible for a person to be both British and Irish unless motivated to choose to be one or the other. It is argued here that the point at which the balance for a given individual would tip to one side more than another depended on circumstances. In the situation where a young Irishman found himself serving the Raj in Punjab as part of a subculture dominated by

in Servants of the empire
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Patrick O’Leary

The Punjab mystique To a public servant, Punjab was an exciting and challenging place to be during the period 1881–1921. The intoxicating mix of frontier wars, great irrigation and land distribution schemes, the building of prodigious bridges, the opportunity to apply medical innovations on a grand scale, could

in Servants of the empire
Patrick O’Leary

plague had entered India in the late 1890s and gradually penetrated inland and northwards, reaching Punjab in 1902 and reaching its peak incidence there in 1904. 5 Precise numbers of deaths are difficult, if not impossible, to establish. Khushwant Singh gives a figure of four million for the province over an indefinite period which seems to be confined to the few years before 1907. 6 Norman

in Servants of the empire
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Patrick O’Leary

magistrate’s court, the police station. 2 Numbers of colonists from eastern Punjab – Muslim, Hindu and Sikh – were helped to migrate; ‘the relief of pressure in congested districts was made the keystone of government policy’, 3 reported Dobson over twenty years later. Hindus and Sikhs found themselves on the Pakistan side of the new

in Servants of the empire