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The role of Dublin in James Yonge’s Memoriale (1412)
Theresa O’Byrne

– the Purgatory of St Patrick. A visit to St Patrick’s Purgatory required an arduous journey to Lough Derg, in the north-west of Ireland, where visitors desiring to have their time in purgatory commuted after death engaged in a long period of fasting; they were then enclosed in a tomb-like cave on a remote island in the lake for a period of twenty-four hours. Rathold stayed in Dublin for short periods prior to and following his pilgrimage to St Patrick’s Purgatory. While he was in Dublin, he met notary and legal clerk James Yonge, who wrote an account of Rathold

in Dublin
Ralph Maud

23 Charles Olson’s first poem Ralph Maud ‘Purgatory Blind’ is probably what Charles Olson is referring to in a letter to Robert Creeley as ‘the very 1st po-em’, adding that it was written in Gloucester on the Annisquam River 1 – that is, the early draft (before it got its title), the first six lines of which we have known from George Butterick’s transcription of them, published in his Guide To the Maximus Poems of Charles Olson: Between the river and the sea I sit writing, The Annisquam and the Atlantic My boundaries, and all between The moors of doubt and

in Contemporary Olson
Amy C. Mulligan

in England’s conquest of Ireland to create an Ireland for England. The Tractatus , we will see, evidences similar patterns. Saint Patrick’s Purgatory: an Irish testing ground The Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii , which details a knight’s visit to Saint Patrick’s Purgatory, a remote pilgrimage site at Lough Derg in Ireland’s northwest (contemporary County Donegal), is a text that is intertwined with Gerald of Wales’s own writings about Ireland. In the

in A landscape of words
Belief and the shaping of medieval society
Author: Paul Fouracre

In early Christianity it was established that every church should have a light burning on the altar at all times. This unique study is about the material and social consequences of maintaining eternal lights. Never before has the subject been treated as important to the political economy, nor has it been explored over the whole medieval period. The cost of maintaining the lights meant that only the elite could afford to do so, and peasants were organised to provide funds for the lights. Later, as society became wealthier, a wider range of people became providers and organised themselves into guilds or confraternities in support of the church and with the particular aim of commemorating their members. Power over the lights, and over individual churches, shifted to these organisations, and, when belief in the efficacy of burning lights was challenged in the Reformation, it was such people who were capable of bringing the practice of burning eternal lights to a sudden and sometimes violent end. The study concludes that the practice of keeping a flame on the altar did indeed have important material and cultural consequences. Because it examines the relation between belief and materiality at every turn, the book also works as a guide to the way in which Western Europe developed, from the decline of the Roman Empire to the advent of the Protestant state.

The new philosophy in Hamlet
Steve Sohmer

home from school in Lutheran Wittenberg where Copernican cosmology is taught. There he encounters the Ghost of his father – an ‘honest ghost,’ mind you – who delivers a detailed description of his place of suffering which is, indisputably, the Catholics’ Purgatory. (To leave no doubt about it, Hamlet swears to the Ghost’s truth ‘by Saint Patrick,’ the traditional gatekeeper of Purgatory

in Shakespeare for the wiser sort
From devotion to destruction
Paul Fouracre

major social forces as they threw their weight behind charitable works, and as crafts and trade guilds, which had begun as religious confraternities, became economically and socially more powerful. Yet, as Robert Swanson has remarked, ‘the amount these organizations spent on candles invariably exceeded the sum paid in formal charity’. 2 In this, my final chapter, I shall look at the way in which a hardening of the concept of Purgatory affected giving for the lights, and, at the same time, I will show how demand for wax increased in the later Middle Ages and led to

in Eternal light and earthly concerns
Abstract only
Sensing death in symbolist theatre
Adrian Curtin

Lerberghe’s Les flaireurs (The Night-Comers, 1889), Maurice Maeterlinck’s L’intruse (The Intruder, 1890), and Leonid Andreyev’s Requiem (1916). The chapter ends with an analysis of W.B. Yeats’s symbolist-inspired play Purgatory (1938). Yeats titled his 1922 autobiographical work The Trembling of the Veil after a statement made by the symbolist poet Stéphane Mallarmé in the 1890s. Mallarmé, in Yeats’s words, said his epoch was ‘troubled by the trembling of the veil of the temple’ (1922: v). What might this mean? This chapter investigates the ‘trembling of the veil’ made by

in Death in modern theatre
Regnar Kristensen

Catholicism may prevent the soul from leaving the dead body for purgatory, and that this provides the ground from which ‘bone-trapped’, restless spirits can terrorise the living. The story of Beltrán Leyva’s corpse In the days after the killing of Beltrán Leyva, images of his corpse were broadcast in the Mexican and world media. The blood-covered corpse was shown with bullet holes and a disfigured arm. It was, moreover, stripped naked and covered with pesos and dollar bills soaked in his blood. On his stomach, somebody had placed several religious amulets and a paper slip

in Governing the dead
Imagining Mary’s grief at the cross
Laura Gallagher

forced a significant reconceptulisation of grief and the grieving process. 12 Medieval Catholic activities that engaged with the fate of the dead were condemned by reformers and particular scrutiny was given to the doctrine of purgatory: the belief in an interim realm between heaven and hell. 13 With ritual and liturgical reform, new and unfamiliar mourning rites were created

in Biblical women in early modern literary culture 1550–1700
Victoria Bladen

. Catholic doctrine allowed for ghosts to be understood as souls from Purgatory, seeking intercession; the only challenge was to be sure of an apparition's orthodoxy. 3 The idea of Purgatory had been central to late medieval theology, an appealing concept of an intermediate zone in which it was possible to work towards entry to heaven and benefit from the efforts of the living to also work towards one's release. 4 However, Protestantism abolished the concept and condemned

in Shakespeare and the supernatural