A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers
Qualitative Research Methods
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
The term ‘qualitative research’ encompasses a wide range of different
methods. What underpins these is a shared aim of understanding the
meaning people attribute to experiences in their lives. It has been defined as
an ‘interpretive approach concerned with understanding the meanings which
people attach to actions, decisions, beliefs, values within their social world’
Qualitative Data Analysis
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
Qualitative data includes a range of textual (e.g. transcripts of interviews and
focus groups) and visual (photographic and video) data. During qualitative
analysis researchers make sense of this data gathered from research.
Analysing the data by looking for common themes (known as thematic
analysis) is one of the most common ways in which to do this and involves
examining and recording patterns within the data relating to a specific
5 The influence of ethnomethodology on
qualitative research methods
As I indicated in earlier chapters, ethnomethodology arose, in large part, from
Garfinkel’s concern with some fundamental methodological problems facing social
science. It should not be surprising, then, that one of the fields where his work
has had the greatest impact has been that of research methodology. Yet, Garfinkel
himself has written very little that could be classified as falling under this heading.
In the 1960s and 1970s, many sociologists – and researchers in other areas
– had their
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
to enter, and which non-citizens must leave, its territory. I suggest that these acts, and the sizeable public support they have sometimes received, rather than gestures of hospitality or acts of hostility, mark the European response to irregularised migration in the past six or so years as qualitatively new.
This article extends ideas first developed in short essays published in the online magazine Inside Story ( Neumann, 2018 , 2019 ). I thank Inside Story ’s editor Peter Browne for encouraging me to write about Seebrücke and Carola
reflection and deliberation when
preparing for project closure. These questions provide a highly practical guide,
illustrated through a concrete case study, for project teams as they embark on a
difficult and potentially fraught phase of a humanitarian project’s
The final contribution to the special section comes in the form of a field report.
Jake Leyland, Budhaditya Bhattacharya and Sandrine Tiller explore a darker side of
qualitative health data in
The Politics of Information and Analysis in Food Security
Numerous factors – some blatant and some subtle – put pressure on
the independent assessment and information collection of famine or near-famine
emergencies, particularly in conflict crises. Some are technical, related to
data quality, the timing of data collection, the lack of data sharing protocols
and the limited ability to utilise qualitative data. Some are related to
resources and the use of analyses as ‘report cards’ on
humanitarian response. But
qualitative health data about community perceptions of well-being and disease, and
health services in multiple contexts where MSF works.
At present the MSF Listen user base is constituted solely of MSF staff. The platform
allows users to upload feedback from communities and patients that is gathered
through standard community engagement initiatives pertaining to MSF contexts. The
idea is to incorporate this feedback into operational decision-making processes so
that MSF operations
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
accounted for 27.1 per cent of all study participants, Torit represented 18.1 per cent, Malualkon represented 17.6 per cent, Bor represented 18.6 per cent, Kapoeta represented 16.9 per cent and Juba represented 1.7 per cent.
For surveys, households were randomly sampled while walking through communities, with one participant from every second house selected. The questionnaire was administered to a household member over the age of 15, present in the household at the time of the survey. For the qualitative data collection, purposive and convenience sampling was used to
, the researchers agreed to utilise participatory action research ( McIntyre, 2007 ; Kemmis et al. , 2013 ), a community-centred methodological approach that aims to produce applied research while the implementing organisation is adjusting its activities in response to the learning. The study, which was designed to be qualitative, was scheduled to begin in Nigeria in the summer of 2020; however, the global pandemic led to a few adjustments in timeframe and data-collection processes (described below).
Given that the research focuses on the activities of peer
Kurasawa , F.
( 2015 ), ‘ How Does
Humanitarian Visuality Work? A Conceptual Toolkit for a Sociology of Iconic
Suffering ’, Sociologica ,
9 : 1 , 1 – 59 .
Lenette , C.
( 2016 ), ‘ Writing with
Light: An Iconographic-Iconologic Approach to Refugee
Photography ’, Forum: Qualitative Social