With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.
Angela Carter‘s Exposure of Flesh-Inscribed Stereotypes
The human body is a crucial site for the inscription of cultural paradigms: how people are perceived controls the way they are treated. Postmodernist writers have shown sexual roles, racial inequalities and other forms of discrimination to be parts of a process of reductio ad absurdum, consisting of the identification of the individual‘s social functions with their anatomical features as well as with the habitual marking of their bodies. This article examines Angela Carter‘s The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman where Carter‘s refusal of established body politics is most clearly dramatised. This novel exposes the dreary consequences of power/weakness relations, together with its contradictory exploitation of Gothic devices, making it an esssential testimony to Carter‘s postmodernist reconfiguration of worldviews and narrative modes.
James Baldwin, William F. Buckley,
Jr., and the 1965 Cambridge Debate
Daniel Robert McClure
The 1965 debate at Cambridge University between James Baldwin and William F. Buckley,
Jr., posed the question: “Has the American Dream been achieved at the Expense of the
American Negro?” Within the contours of the debate, Baldwin and Buckley wrestled with the
ghosts of settler colonialism and slavery in a nation founded on freedom and equality.
Framing the debate within the longue durée, this essay examines the deep cultural currents
related to the American racial paradox at the height of the Civil Rights movement.
Underscoring the changing language of white resistance against black civil rights, the
essay argues that the Baldwin and Buckley debate anticipated the ways the U.S. would
address racial inequality in the aftermath of the civil rights era and the dawn of
neoliberalism in the 1970s.
Towards a critical race theory of the labour market
subjects on the racial strata will have a significant impact on
labour market outcomes of migrants, the oxymoronic nature of such
a pursuit is equally evident. By this I mean that the mere existence of
a hierarchy – in this case racial strata which are predicated on racialinequality, cannot be fully addressed simply by repositioning actors on
the strata unless the racial structures that sustain them are dismantled.
We need racial emancipation that is reflected in the labour market,
not only in Ireland but in all of Europe and the Western world. This is
Policing the racial order through
the group favouritism continuum
The pervasiveness of economic and racialinequalities is undeniable.
It is evident from the whiteness of the top tiers of the labour market,
to the escalating overt anti-migrant sentiments of right-wing nationalists, not overlooking the higher unemployment rate of Black workers
compared with their White counterparts – in Ireland and across
Europe. Despite the growing population of Europeans of Black African
descent with credentials acquired in European institutions, many
labour forces in the
Conclusion: Was it worth it?
This book seeks to build upon existing scholarly work to further understand
the complicated relationship between African American pride in the election
of a black president and the problem of persistent racialinequality. Political
scientists such as Dawson and Harris—along with other public intellectuals
such as Tavis Smiley and Cornel West (see “Tavis Smiley, Cornel West on
the 2012 Election…” 2012)—point out the structural stability of persistent
inequality and criticize the president for not having done enough to narrow
Human societies are racially stratified; why is this and what are the
implications? If migration is the reason for racialinequality in the labour
market, then all persons of migrant background should have the same
experience and economic outcome when comparing like with like. This
is not, however, the case in Ireland nor in any other part of the Western
world today. Neither has it been so for a very long time. Europe is
a migratory hub; a milieu of intra- and inter-continental movement
of people where every immigrant has to adjust to their new
The racial successes, failures, and impact of the Obama presidency
, the necessity of having to address a
catastrophic financial crisis would have limited his flexibility. However, given
Obama’s commitment to race-neutral campaign strategies (see Frasure 2010;
Racial successes, failures, and impact
McIlwain 2010, 168–169), it is arguable that President Obama had always
intended to address certain types of racialinequality indirectly, as part of a
larger, national program.
Assessing President Obama’s performance
Scholars, journalists, political operatives, and pundits have devoted thousands
of pages to analyzing Barack
The election of Barack Obama was a milestone in US history with tremendous symbolic importance for the black community. But was this symbolism backed up by substance? Did ordinary black people really benefit under the first black president? This is the question that Andra Gillespie sets out to answer in Race and the Obama Administration. Using a variety of methodological techniques—from content analysis of executive orders to comparisons of key indicators, such as homeownership and employment rates under Clinton, Bush, and Obama— the book charts the progress of black causes and provides valuable perspective on the limitations of presidential power in addressing issues of racial inequality. Gillespie uses public opinion data to investigate the purported disconnect between Obama’s performance and his consistently high ratings among black voters, asking how far the symbolic power of the first black family in the White House was able to compensate for the compromises of political office. Scholarly but accessible, Race and the Obama Administration will be of interest to students and lecturers in US politics and race studies, as well as to general readers who want to better understand the situation of the black community in the US today and the prospects for its improvement.
How migrants negotiate racially stratifying systems
experiences of migrants that become
solidified into corresponding reconstructed identities. Based on this
framework, I argue that the labour market participation process should
be understood as a race phenomenon where a colour-coded migrant
penalty is endemic in the proliferation of racialinequality. Racial stratification is not however deterministic because individual migrants can
and do express minority agency which influences labour mobility and
Migration from the individual to the collective
When migrants come into the labour market in racial