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Theory and methodology
Ebun Joseph

4 A framework for exposing racial stratification: theory and methodology Do you think society is equal or unequal? Every time I ask that question, I get the same answer – that society is unequivocally unequal, from Blacks, Whites, males and females. Critical race theorists likewise insist that society is hierarchical. What this means in plain and practical terms is that some people in our society are at the top and some are at the bottom of the society. Who, then, is at the top and who is at the bottom? More importantly, how do we determine which group/s are at

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Comparing the labour market outcomes of Spanish, Polish and Nigerian migrants
Ebun Joseph

3 Evidence of racial stratification in Ireland: comparing the labour market outcomes of Spanish, Polish and Nigerian migrants Racial inequality in the labour market is not new in Ireland, Europe or anywhere in the world. What many grapple with is how best to represent these data. In the last decade the plight of Black workers, despite worsening across Europe, has almost fallen off the agenda and is subsumed under labels like ‘Diversity and inclusion’ in Ireland and ‘Widening participation’ in the UK. A racial hierarchy framework can make racial inequalities and

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Author: Ebun Joseph

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

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Racial stratification as a ‘default’ starting position
Ebun Joseph

5 Knowing your place: racial stratification as a ‘default’ starting position In a country with racial groups like White, Black or Black Irish, Asian or Asian-Irish, it suggests that racial groups are created and categorised as they become visible in society. While these have some very useful purposes like collation of Census data and the provision of public services, it becomes problematic when we consider who categorises people, the power dynamics involved, and the meaning associated with the categories in terms of where, how and with whom individuals are

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
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Towards a critical race theory of the labour market
Ebun Joseph

Conclusion: towards a critical race theory of the labour market Racial stratification is not an unproblematic concept. It is widely acknowledged by many race proponents as a key determinant of socioeconomic outcomes among groups based on their racial categorisation. In chapter 5 of this book, I described racial stratification as a homogenising system of structured inequality, where an assigned default starting position determines access to scarce and desired resources based on racial group membership. While it is clear that the equal positioning of human

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
How migrants negotiate racially stratifying systems
Ebun Joseph

7 Minority agency, experiences and reconstructed identities: how migrants negotiate racially stratifying systems As anti-immigrant sentiment increases across the Western world, its goal is to attain racial homogeneity which is among one of the most effective means of social control (Goldberg, 2001). Inequality, economic dominance and racial stratification have indeed been argued to produce behavioural changes (Massey, 2007; Verdugo, 2008; Haney López, 2010). Whereas a stratification approach ‘attributes continuing stratification to a broad range of behavioural

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
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Ebun Joseph

groups appearing at the bottom of the ladder. Critical race theory (CRT) scholars have on the other hand taken the view that racial stratification assigns immigrants to different strata, thus influencing their outcomes. The theory of immigration and racial stratification (Zuberi JOSEPH 9781526134394 PRINT.indd 1 03/07/2020 15:44 2 Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market and Bashi, 1997) is pivotal in this regard as it presents insights into how on arrival in the US, immigrants are assigned a racial identity. Having been developed in the US, this

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
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The unmarked marker in racialised hierarchical social systems
Ebun Joseph

. The way it impacts on a group will depend on where group members are located on the strata. The effect can include limiting or granting group members access to esteem, status, power and resources. We might, then, erroneously think that race is the problem; to this I say no. The real problem is what race is used for: the creation and maintaining of a racial hierarchy where some – more specifically, Blacks – are at the bottom and some – Whites – are at the top. This arrangement of people on strata based on their race in very simple terms is racial stratification and

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Ebun Joseph

discrimination and how groups on lower racial strata try to circumvent its negative effect. The last structure comprises human contact – the connectors through which the racial stratification system operates. JOSEPH 9781526134394 PRINT.indd 178 03/07/2020 15:44 The group favouritism continuum 179 The chapter concludes by making three key arguments. First, that the favouritism continuum determines the outcome of actors by the position they occupy on the continuum. Secondly, that although racial stratification is restrictive, the outcome is fluid and changeable due to

in Critical race theory and inequality in the labour market
Race, locality and resistance
Author: Shirin Hirsch

Fifty years ago Enoch Powell made national headlines with his 'Rivers of Blood' speech, warning of an immigrant invasion in the once respectable streets of Wolverhampton. This local fixation brought the Black Country town into the national spotlight, yet Powell's unstable relationship with Wolverhampton has since been overlooked. Drawing from oral history and archival material, this book offers a rich local history through which to investigate the speech, bringing to life the racialised dynamics of space during a critical moment in British history. What was going on beneath the surface in Wolverhampton and how did Powell's constituents respond to this dramatic moment? The research traces the ways in which Powell's words reinvented the town and uncovers highly contested local responses. While Powell left Wolverhampton in 1974, the book returns to the city to explore the collective memories of the speech that continue to reverberate. In a contemporary period of new crisis and division, examining the shadow of Powell allows us to reflect on racism and resistance from 1968 to the present day.