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Margaret C. Flinn

This article traces what Élie Faure believed to be the racial, ethnic and geographic origins of art. Influenced by the writings of Gobineau and Taine, he asserts that the taxonomisation of species provides a model for the taxonomisation of artistic productions. The mixing of various races is evidenced in their artistic production, with the relative presence or absence of the rhythmic serving as an index for the presence or absence of certain types of blood, or racial/ethnic origins. Similarly, the qualities of the land where art is produced results in visible effects upon the (artistic) forms created by the people living in that geographic area. Métissage is considered a positive characteristic, and cinema the apogee of modern artistic production because of its integration of machine rhythms into the rhythms of human gesture.

Film Studies
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Resisting racism in times of national security
Editor: Asim Qureshi

In times of national security, scholars and activists who hail from the communities under suspicion attempt to draw readers and listeners to the complexity of the world we inhabit. For those who campaigned against the SUS law in the 1980s, when young Black men were being routinely stopped in the streets, the wave of counter-terrorism legislation and policy that exists today will be very familiar. Similarly, recent discussions about the impact of drill music in the culture of young Black men has drawn questions around the ways in which they should be securitised, with senior police calling for the use of terrorism legislation against them. In this environment, when those who study and have lived alongside the communities who are at the scrutiny of the state raise questions about the government, military and police policy, they are often shut down as terrorist-sympathisers, or apologists for gang culture. In such environments, there is an expectation on scholars and activists to condemn what society at large fears. This volume is about how that expectation has emerged alongside the normalisation of racism, and how these writers choose to subvert the expectations raised on them, as part of their commitment to anti-racism.

Remi Joseph-Salisbury

long coat and a top hat and made all the other slaves look up to him. Then he used Tom to control them. The same strategy that was used in those days is used today. He takes a Negro, a so-called Negro, and makes him prominent, builds him up, publicizes him, makes him a celebrity. And then he becomes a spokesman for Negroes.13 There is a whole industry open to people who will condemn the communities they are imagined to represent. For the establishment, these people serve an invaluable purpose. The shallow racial essentialism that characterizes our politics means

in I Refuse to Condemn
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Mark S. Dawson

explain the causes of human difference’.16 Similarly, while careful to avoid suggesting that it was the sole reason for the rise of a racial essentialism, Justin Smith has argued that Europeans who ventured into what were, for them, climatic extremes became all but paranoid about degeneration. Fearing supposedly profound, irresistible somatic change wrought by the different environment, migrants therefore started to think that, in fact, they shared home-grown bodily traits which endured, rather than believed these always contingent upon, and induced by, new climatic

in Bodies complexioned
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Satadru Sen

as self-hating victims of colonialism, 17 it does not do justice to Ranjitsinhji, and, I suspect, to the complexity of other mobile natives. To see Ranjitsinhji as deracinated is to fall into a racial essentialism that ignores the possibilities of playing with color and culture in the British empire, and to regard his reinsertion into India as merely a state of nostalgia for England is to miss the vitality and the reality of his reinvented Indian self. A relatively perceptive piece of writing on Ranjitsinhji is

in Migrant races
The Cosmopolitan Pan-Africanist
Kweku Ampiah

doubt about the insightfulness of Appiah’s interrogation of race as the basis of a collective identity for the regeneration of the life of Africans and people of African descent in the diaspora. After all, his mother – Peggy Appiah, an Englishwoman – was possibly a more valiant Pan-Africanist than his father, Ghanaian politician Joe Appiah. The deeper truth, however, is that racial essentialism – as a by-product of race theory, but an illusion, nonetheless – is part of the fabric of political discourses in the West. At the very least, it is a weapon that people

in The Pan-African Pantheon
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Michael D. Leigh

communities impoverished African converts. In her study of colonial Zimbabwe, Pamela Welch shows how the unwillingness of local white congregations to help African missions perpetuated colonial practices. Indeed Southern Africa was a mission-minefield, scarred with funding gaps and entrenched colonial practices. Richard Price explains that ‘racial essentialism’ led missionaries to regard cultural subordination as the prerequisite for salvation. 47 The early Wesleyan missionaries in Upper Burma were less racist than Southern

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
The aporias and prospects of cosmopolitan visuality
Fuyuki Kurasawa

ordinary. On the other hand, the humanitarian scopic regime frequently naturalizes the causes of such a crisis by falling back on visual patterns and conventions that draw upon ethno-racial essentialism. Directed thus, visuality contributes to marking African societies as fundamentally different from their North American and European counterparts because of their intrinsically violent, tribal character or, yet again, because of an ‘oversexualized’ or ‘undisciplined’ culture. Naturalization takes a metaphysical form when images repeatedly present humanitarian crises as

in Democracy in crisis
Colette Gaiter

neighbourhoods, similar to those created by the Black Panthers.18 As Vijay Prashad suggests in his 2001 book Everybody was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, the idea of polyculturalism – as an alternative to multiculturalism, which seems to promote racial essentialism or colour blindness – appeared to be the most viable antidote to white supremacy. Polyculturalism reveals the blending of cultural practices and values across ethnic boundaries.19 The Black Panther exemplified intercultural cooperation; for example it published the first

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Borders and images in migration narratives published in Norwegian
Johan Schimanski

–31 . Leerssen , J. ( 2019 ) ‘ The North: A cultural stereotype between metaphor and racial essentialism ’, in S. Halink (ed.), Northern Myths, Modern Identities: The Nationalisation of Northern Mythologies Since 1800. Leiden : Brill , pp. 13–32 . Loomis , C.C. ( 1977 ) ‘ The Arctic sublime ’, in U.C. Knoepflmacher and G.B. Tennyson (eds), Nature and the Victorian Imagination

in Border images, border narratives