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Defining emotional reform and affectivity in John of Fécamp’s Confessio theologica
Lauren Mancia

acquaintances, and the wider Anglo-Norman audience of his work. The Confessio theologica ’s central argument is the following: Christians desiring a connection to the divine needed to work to reform their devotional emotions , not just their devotional actions. John demands readers ‘enter into the interior of [their] mind[s]‌’. 2 For John, even the most devout Christian was in need of a conversio – a turning back to God – because even the most devout Christian relapsed into habitual behaviours, dulling his or her awareness of the divine. At the

in Emotional monasticism
The target audience
Louise Hill Curth

Chapter 4 - ‘Courteous Readers’: the target audience Seeing (courteous Reader) that Prognostications and annuall Almanacks are commonly published for the use and behoffe of the Common people: I have thought good for their better understanding, to be as plaine therein as I might, and therefore have written little in this Almanacke and Astronomicall Tables, but what (with small paines even of the simplest) may be easily understood.1 A lthough many almanac writers provided clues as to the types of audiences that they were attempting to reach, it does not

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700
Well-regulated minds

Imagining Women Readers reassesses the cultural significance of women's reading in the period 1789-1820. While much attention has been paid to the moral panic provoked by novel-reading during this period, this study offers a more progressive and enabling narrative. From the turbulent years following the French Revolution to the fiction of Jane Austen, Imagining Women Readers charts the rise of a self-regulating reader, who possesses both moral and cultural authority. It identifies how writers working in a range of genres – including conduct books, educational texts, and fiction – viewed reading as a mode of symbolic labour, which enabled forms of female participation in national life. Often considered an inward-looking, domestic activity, this book argues that reading was frequently depicted through the language of the public, rather than the private, sphere. Imagining Women Readers offers a unique perspective on the relationship between reading, education and the construction of femininity. In doing so, it sheds new light on the work of some of the most celebrated women writers of the period, including Hannah More, Jane West, Anna Letitia Barbauld and Maria Edgeworth.

Abstract only
Vincent Quinn

common cold’? 1 The literary-critical concept of ‘the common reader’ participates in this force-field of social and linguistic associations, and its applications and meanings are correspondingly complex. With an ancestry that stretches back to Samuel Johnson and Virginia Woolf, the underlying idea appears simple: appeals to ‘the common reader’ are a way of acknowledging the judgement of a literate but non-specialist person who stands apart from the world of professional critics and whose verdict is said to be the ultimate arbiter of literary value. It is an

in Reading
James Baldwin’s Voice in “Notes of a Native Son”
Beth Tillman

This article is a close analysis of Baldwin’s voice in the essay “Notes of a Native Son.” Much has been written about Baldwin’s themes, but without his singular voice, the power of his works would not endure. Through his use of diction, repetition, alliteration and assonance, scene selection, and even punctuation, Baldwin provides the reader with a transformative experience by rendering his own experience accessible. The political and the personal are inextricable, a truth made unavoidable by the way Baldwin writes as much as by the subject he chooses. Examining how he crafts his voice allows us to understand more deeply the power of “Notes of a Native Son.”

James Baldwin Review
John Masters and the Savage family saga
Richard Steadman-Jones

3 Colonial fiction for liberal readers: John Masters and the Savage family saga Richard Steadman-Jones The American Liberal … taught me much, above all to look afresh at institutions and ideas which I had held as fixed pillars of the universe. Without his abrasive presence and pressure around me, I could not have written anything better than potboiling thrillers.  (John Masters, 1971)1 An issue of reception Between 1951 and 1962, John Masters published a sequence of seven novels, each set at a different moment in the history of British India.2 The heroes of

in End of empire and the English novel since 1945
Clotilde Escalle’s tales of transgression
Michael Worton

   Unnatural women and uncomfortable readers? Clotilde Escalle’s tales of transgression Described by critics variously as one of the ‘new barbarians’ of French writing,1 as one of the cruel ‘Barbarellas’ who seek only to depict the disarray of contemporary French society,2 and as one of the new breed of women writers who hold a violent and deep-seated grudge against the gaze of men,3 Clotilde Escalle is remarkable among new writers for the dispassionate way in which she presents violent sexual and familial dramas. Escalle was born in  in Fez

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
James Doelman

8 The readers of printed epigram books What readers actually did with texts in the early seventeenth century is largely beyond scholarly recovery, and this is particularly the case with the humble genre of epigrams. While this chapter concludes with a survey of what one reader did with a copy of the 1615 edition of Harington’s Epigrams, it mostly concerns the imagined or implied reader constructed or addressed by printed volumes of epigrams themselves rather than that which the book in the marketplace would necessarily achieve. I first turn to the general

in The epigram in England, 1590–1640
Pleasure and the practised reader
Richard De Ritter

5 Making the novel-readers of a country: pleasure and the practised reader A Collection of Novels has a better chance of giving pleasure than of commanding respect . . . For my own part, I scruple not to confess that, when I take up a novel, my end and object is entertainment; and as I suspect that to be the case with most readers, I hesitate not to say that entertainment is their legitimate end and object. Anna Letitia Barbauld, ‘On the Origin and Progress of Novel-Writing’1 The previous chapter drew attention to the scenes of reading in Maria Edgeworth

in Imagining women readers, 1789–1820
Andrew Smith

a culturally assured position within Romanticism, in part because so many of the Romantics, such as Coleridge, Percy Shelley and Keats wrote in the Gothic form. 2 Whilst reading the Gothic might have proved a critically profitable manoeuvre on the part of the academy, it is also noteworthy that the fin de siècle Gothic expresses a level of self-consciousness about reading practices that also invites critical scrutiny. By looking at readers and writers within the Gothic we gain a new insight into how the Gothic

in Interventions