This article examines the post-millennial popularity of the found footage movie, in particular its engagement with the representational codes of non-fiction media. Whilst the majority of critical writings on found footage identify the 11 September attacks on the World Trade Centre as a key visual referent, they too often dwell on the literal re-enactment of the event. This article instead suggests that these films evoke fear by mimicking the aesthetic and formal properties of both mainstream news coverage and amateur recording. As such they create both ontological and epistemological confusion as to the reality of the events depicted. Rather than merely replicating the imagery of terror/ism, these films achieve their terrifying effects by mimicking the audiences media spectatorship of such crisis.
-economic life of villages, worked out by villagers themselves. His
idea was to develop human resources, make use of available resources and develop
sustainable rural organizations on cooperative principles.
Rural reconstruction programmes in Sriniketan were primarily organized and
coordinated by the Rural Extension Centre (REC). REC is not an academic unit.
Its programmes included:
• developing and strengthening Village Development Societies (VDS);
• extension education through adult and continuing education and community learning centres (CLCc);
• youth welfare
), the second is related to the
importance accorded to special effects and make-up art in horror
What I propose to do in this chapter is to examine a
recent horror film, Jaume Balagueró’s and Paco
Plaza’s REC ( 2007 ), in order to see how these core genre features
mentioned above work in tandem with other more recent developments,
Monstrous Media/Spectral Subjects explores Gothic, monstrosity, spectrality and media forms and technologies (music, fiction's engagements with photography/ cinema, film, magic practice and new media) from the later nineteenth century to the present day. Placing Gothic forms and productions in an explicitly interdisciplinary context, it investigates how the engagement with technologies drives the dissemination of Gothic across diverse media through the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, while conjuring all kinds of haunting and spectral presences that trouble cultural narratives of progress and technological advancement.
all clinical research in Ireland. The requirements of the EU Regulation 2014
could be mostly replicated in this Act for interventional clinical trials which
do not involve IMPs. This would ensure a clear legal framework and provide equal protection to all children involved in clinical trials in Ireland. It
would also mean clarity for Research Ethics Committees (RECs), in that they
would be required to assess research protocols by reference to one set of legal
There are also some inadequacies in the current framework for clinical
trials with IMPs in
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism. Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence. Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles. This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.
final principle that contributed to
the OAU’s security culture was that of uti possidetis or the legal doctrine
asserting that existing colonial boundaries would become international
boundaries of the new countries upon achieving independence.15
At a Council of Ministers meeting in 1979, the OAU decided to divide
Africa up into five sub-regions corresponding to the number of regional
economic communities (RECs) in existence at the time, while also promoting the establishment of other new RECs.16 The 1991 Abuja Treaty,
which sought to rationalize the Pan-African and
External influences and continental shaping forces
-up, there are significant
pressures and forces emanating from domestic political and social structures on the continent that compel political action at supranational level.
How does the JAES reflect this diverse mix of actors, and how far does it
respond to the different pressures for integration? To what extent can the
strategy manage the disintegrative forces that are evident in the African
continent, reflected in such realities as the limited regional economic
integration among the existing regional economic communities (RECs),
potential neo-colonial interventions of Brexit Britain. Chiefly, it examines the role of African Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of states as potential vehicles for resisting some of the overt machinations of British institutions (namely, the Department for International Trade (DIT) under Liam Fox and the Department for International Development (DFID) formerly under Priti Patel, and now Penny Mordaunt). In so doing the chapter queries whether Brexit trade ties will be ‘good’ for African countries as per the imperial