1 Regionalism, regional culture and regional identity What is a region? The question has preoccupied geographers for more than a century. While early twentieth-century geographers, such as A.J. Herbertson, developed a theory of the region based on ‘natural’ characteristics, suggesting a region was defined by ‘a certain unity of configuration, climate and vegetation’ (Herbertson, 1905: 309), subsequent definitions have taken social as well as environmental factors into consideration. Accordingly, a region came to be defined not only on the basis of its physical
6 African regionalism: external influences and continental shaping forces Mary Farrell The Joint Africa–EU Strategy (JAES) (Council of the European Union, 2007) marked another phase in the cooperation between the two continents that had its origins in the post-colonial era for the African countries, and for the new European community founded under the Treaty of Rome (1957). Presented as a strategic partnership among the 27 countries of the European Union (EU) and the 53 countries of Africa, it was framed with the intention to redefine the relations between the
2 Regional broadcasting Since the 1920s the development of regional broadcasting in the UK has been subject to a number of interrelated factors: technological, geographical, cultural, financial and political. Among these the technological and geographical have arguably been the most significant. The designation of geographical regions has been determined mainly by the availability of broadcasting frequencies and the range of transmitters, rather than by any idea of shared community interests or indigenous regional identities. Writing about regional and local
European horror films have often been characterised by a tendency towards co-production arrangements. Recent developments within regional European funding bodies and initiatives have led to a proliferation of films that combine traditional co-production agreements with the use of both regional and intra-regional funding sources. This article examines the extent to which the financial structuring of Creep(Christopher Smith, 2004), Salvage (Lawrence Gough), and Trollhunter (André Øvredal, 2010) informed the trajectory of their production dynamics, impacting upon their final form. Sometimes, such European horror films are part of complex co-production deals with multiple partners or are derived from one-off funding project. But they can also utilise funding schemes that are distinctly local.
Focusing on professional politicians, this book investigates the interrelationship between political career patterns and political institutions in two of the most widely discussed cases of regionalism: Catalonia and Scotland. It deals with two different yet closely related sets of questions. Firstly, how do professional politicians pursue their careers in the regional context? And secondly, how do they shape and reshape the political institutions in which they pursue these careers? The book is based on extensive empirical research including a comprehensive data set on the careers of Catalan and Scottish parliamentarians, systematic surveys of regional representatives as well as in-depth interviews with a wide range of politicians and experts in both regions. Exploring the effects of political professionalisation on regional democracy, it goes beyond traditional studies of regionalism and decentralization, while its focus on the regional career arena introduces a territorial dimension to the study of political careers.
5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 1111 21 3 4 51 6 7 8 9 10 1 1112 3 411 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 1 211 3/9/09 16:45 Page 103 6 Regional policy and politics Bríd Quinn Introduction From its inception in the 1970s, the European Union’s regional policy has effected significant change in member states, while itself evolving from a limited policy instrument to a fully fledged policy in response to expanding EU membership and changing priorities (Featherstone and Radaelli, 2003; Bache, 1998). Such change has been asymmetric between and
Secretariat; and the Inter-American Committee of Human Rights. The OAS does not have its own regional court of justice to settle inter-state disputes. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is not an OAS body, but it does monitor the observance of human rights by OAS Member States. 94 The European Union The EU was established
Although the CAP was the main source of Britain’s budgetary problem, changes to agricultural policy were not the only potential solution. The development of the ERDF was the other way envisioned by Heath of finding compensation for the high cost of Community membership. The policy was central to Heath’s European agenda, hence his celebration of the Paris Summit’s endorsement of the idea. As the Economist put it, a regional fund ‘might bring back across the Channel a little bit of the EEC membership fee which Britain pays Europe’s farmers’. Moreover, it ‘would
1 Regional capacity building in Europe Much of the devolution debate in Wales has centred upon the uniqueness of Welsh constitutional arrangements and political traditions. There has been a strong temptation to resort to a form of Welsh exceptionalism to explain the emergence of the new Welsh quasi-polity. A comparative dimension facilitates a just appreciation of what really is distinctive within Wales and which trends are more generally applicable in similar regions. In Beyond Devolution and Decentralisation, the intention has been to deepen the understanding
2 Regionalism, regionalisation and regional institutions in Catalonia and Scotland: setting the stage for a regional political class This chapter sets out to delineate the broad historical developments and the main structural features that condition the potential emergence and scope of a regional political class in Catalonia and Scotland. This is of course a vast and difﬁcult task, as it touches upon the macro-processes of democratisation, state modernisation, regionalisation and political professionalisation and the complex ways they have impacted on each other