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The Irish and the English in the seventeenth century
Author: Ian Campbell

Inspired both by debates about the origins of the modern ideology of race and also by controversy over the place of Ireland and the Irish in theories of empire in the early modern Atlantic world, Renaissance Humanism and Ethnicity before Race argues that ethnic discourse among the elite in early modern Ireland was grounded firmly in the Renaissance Humanism and Aristotelianism which dominated all the European universities before the Enlightenment. Irish and English, Catholic and Protestant, all employed theories of human society based on Aristotle’s Politics and the natural law of the medieval universities to construct or dismantle the categories of civility and barbarism. The elites operating in Ireland also shared common resources, taught in the universities, for arguing about the human body and its ability to transmit hereditary characteristics. Both in Ireland and elsewhere in Europe, these theories of human society and the human body underwent violent changes in the late seventeenth century under the impact of the early Enlightenment. These changes were vital to the development of race as we know it.

Torbjørn L. Knutsen

Greek by Lorenzo Valla in 1485 and had an immediate impact on Renaissance humanism. The intensely sought-after Greek and Roman manuscripts provided fledgling political theorists with sustained and systematic discussions of political theory. Some complete works of the classical period had been known and studied before the fifteenth century. Euclid and selections from Aristotle and Plato and others had been accessible since the High Middle Ages but through often inexact Arabic translations. Immense horizons were opened by the sudden influx of classical

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Chari Larsson

The book’s argument is extended in this chapter by investigating Didi-Huberman’s concern with matter and materiality by way of three themes that distinguished his writing through the 1900s: the pan, dissemblance and presencing. Didi-Huberman’s interest in the image’s materiality comes to the fore with the case study Fra Angelico’s marmi finti, or the fictive marble panels in the corridor of the San Marco convent. Chapter 2 asks the question: What role does early Christian theology play in Didi-Huberman’s work? This facilitates a rethinking of the entire philosophical and historical tradition in which the history of art has been understood, with its dependency on Platonism and Renaissance humanism.

in Didi-Huberman and the image
Abstract only
Elisabeth Chaghafi

Chapter 1 is an overview of written lives of poets during the early modern period and the shapes they take (prefatory lives, compilations of lives etc.). It proposes that the dominance of the idea of vita activa (public service) in Renaissance humanism in existing models of lives posed problems for writing lives of poets as poets. The early modern written lives of Chaucer and Sir Thomas More are used to illustrate this problem. Both were recognised as important English poets during the sixteenth century, yet the biographies of both are almost exclusively concerned with their public lives. The chapter also contrasts two lives that illustrate the developments traced by this book: Thomas Speght’s ‘Life of Chaucer’ (1598) and Gerard Langbaine’s ‘Life of Cowley’ (1691). The former is a carefully structured text that unites typical features of the exemplary life and the prefatory life and demonstrates the dominance of the humanist idea of a vita activa within early modern life narratives. The latter considers Cowley primarily through his works, indirectly revealing the impact of Izaak Walton’s Lives (discussed in Chapter 4).

in English literary afterlives
Ian Campbell

Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600–2000 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 3–7. 2 ሉ Renaissance humanism ሊ That the conceptualisation of race did indeed trouble the judges and lawyers charged with prosecuting genocide was evident in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide of 1994 in which at least 800,000 Tutsi and pro-peace Hutu were murdered by the majority Hutu population.4 The difficulty for the prosecutors lay in the fact that the hard racial distinction between Tutsi and Hutu was itself an ideology: a set of assumptions, ideals, and goals; less coherent than a

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

Lynch, archdeacon of Tuam, responded to O’Ferrall in his Alithinologia of 1664 and Supplementum 114 ሉ Renaissance humanism ሊ Alithinologiae of 1667. The archdeacon’s books defended the right of the Stuart monarchs to the kingdom of Ireland, and insisted on the firm allegiance of the English Irish to the Catholic faith. However, included in these Latin works was a distinctive defence of the English Irish nobility. Nobility was a concept and social phenomenon in which both Lynch and O’Ferrall had a great deal invested. John Lynch and Richard O’Ferrall both spent

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

vocabulary with which to describe the relationships within and between human societies. Renaissance humanism, it will be argued, was precisely this process of using Latin and Greek to speak about the contemporary world, and, at a further remove, using classical concepts in one’s own vernacular. In particular, the European universities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries taught their students a theory of law, heavily inflected by Aristotle’s philosophy, which amounted to a complete theory of human society. Seventeenth-century Europeans used this theory of law to 1

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

’s Irish Chronicle, pp. 262–3. 54 ሉ Renaissance humanism ሊ the younger man and asked permission to speak, which Thomas granted. The real Cromer was an Oxford M.A., and Stanihurst reconstructed a plausible specimen of deliberative oratory for the archbishop, urging the young nobleman to ascertain his father’s wellbeing (the putative cause of the rebellion) before taking further action, and warning of the danger which such rebellion posed to family and commonwealth. The structure could have come straight from the Rhetorica ad Herennium, a beginner’s manual in rhetoric

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

, De Rebus in Hibernia Gestis, Libri Quattuor (Antwerp, 1584), pp. 137–43. 2 Ian Campbell, ‘Aristotelian ancient constitution and anti-Aristotelian sovereignty in Stuart Ireland’, Historical Journal, 53 (2010), 573–91. 84 ሉ Renaissance humanism ሊ Commentarius Rinuccinianus, offered a list of political writers who thought the papal bull Laudabiliter, by which Ireland had allegedly been granted to King Henry II, void: Philip O’Sullivan Beare, Geoffrey Keating, Daniel O’Daly (Dominic of the Rosary), and John Lynch.3 All these writers thought the bull’s claim that the

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race
Ian Campbell

the Limits of Reason (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 1–10. 6 Gerard and Arnold Boate, Philosophia Naturalis Reformata, pp. 2, 262, 287, 289. 7 Ibid., pp. 69–71, 95, 184–5, 277, 342–7. 8 B. P. Copenhaver and C. B. Schmitt, Renaissance Philosophy (Oxford, 1992), pp. 198–9, 258–9. 9 ‘foedissimum delirium’, Gerard and Arnold Boate, Philosophia Naturalis Reformata, p. 315. 168 ሉ Renaissance humanism ሊ explained Lucretius’s doctrine that there were no final causes. A final cause was the purpose for which a thing existed, as the grass grows to provide sustenance for cattle: the

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race